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Wittekind, D. (author), Tougaard, J. (author), Stilz, P. (author), Dähne, M. (author), Clark, C.W. (author), Lucke, K. (author), von Benda-Beckmann, A.M. (author), Ainslie, M.A. (author), Siebert, U. (author)
We estimated the long-range effects of air gun array noise on marine mammal communication ranges in the Southern Ocean. Air gun impulses are subject to significant distortion during propagation, potentially resulting in a quasi- continuous sound. Propagation modeling to estimate the received waveform was conducted. A leaky integrator was used as...
bookPart 2016
Ainslie, M.A. (author), TNO Fysisch en Elektronisch Laboratorium (author)
A rigorous application of the traditional definition of sonar equation terms leads to the appearance of an unexpected factor, not routinely included, equal to the ratio of the characteristic impedance at the receiver to that at the source. An omission of this factor can lead to non-negligible errors for realistic conditions. It is further argued...
article 2004