Searched for: subject%3A%22Photoreceptors%22
(1 - 14 of 14)
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TNO Kwaliteit van Leven (author), van der Horst, M.A. (author), Arents, J.C. (author), Kort, R. (author), Hellingwerf, K.J. (author)
The bacterial photoreceptor protein photoactive yellow protein (PYP) covalently binds the chromophore 4-hydroxy coumaric acid, tuning (spectral) characteristics of this cofactor. Here, we study this binding and tuning using a combination of pointmutations and chromophore analogs. In all photosensor proteins studied to date the covalent linkage...
article 2007
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Zagers, N.P.A. (author), Pot, M.C.A. (author), van Norren, D. (author)
Our aim was to assess the integrity of the photoreceptors in the fovea, and to measure the optical density of the macular pigment and the eye lens in patients with diabetes mellitus, and to compare the results with those of a group of healthy subjects. The directional and spectral properties of the light reflected from a 1.9 deg field centered...
article 2005
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Zagers, N.P.A. (author), van Norren, D. (author)
We measured the amplitude of the directional component of the bleached fundus reflectance, the so-called optical Stiles-Crawford effect, as a function of wavelength. The directional reflectance originates from within the outer segments of the photoreceptors. Thus only two anterior absorbers are of importance: Macular pigment and the crystalline...
article 2004
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Berendschot, T.T.J.M. (author), Delint, P.J. (author), van Norren, D. (author), TNO Technische Menskunde (author)
In 1851 Helmholtz introduced the ophthalmoscope. The instrument allowed the observation of light reflected at the fundus. The development of this device was one of the major advancements in ophthalmology. Yet ophthalmoscopy allows only qualitative observation of the eye. Since 1950 attempts were made to address the challenging, quantitative...
article 2003
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Zagers, N.P.A. (author), Berendschot, T.T.J.M. (author), van Norren, D. (author)
We present evidence for the wavelength dependence of the directionality of light reflected from cone receptor cells (optical StilesCrawford effect): Blue light is more directional than red. According to the waveguide-scattering model of Marcos J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15 , 2012 (1998), directionality is the sum of a waveguide component and a...
article 2003
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Bouman, M.A. (author)
In the model presented here, in the dark any single quantum absorption in a rod or cone produces a subliminal excitation. Subliminal excitations from both halves of a twin unit pair in the retina for the perception of light from the stimulus. A twin unit contains either two red or two green cones. The twin units are intertwined in triples of two...
article 2002
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Bouman, M.A. (author)
Thresholds for seeing light from a stimulus are determined by a mechanism that pairs subliminal excitations from both halves of a twin unit. Such excitations stem from a package of k ≥ 1 receptor responses. A half-unit contains one red or one green cone and P rods. The receptor's "Weber machine" controls the receptor's gain. Each half of a twin...
article 2002
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Zagers, N.P.A. (author), van de Kraats, J. (author), Berendschot, T.T.J.M. (author), van Norren, D. (author)
An instrument for simultaneous measurement of foveal spectral reflectance and cone-photoreceptor directionality is described. The key element is an imaging spectrograph (spectral range of 420–790 nm) with its entrance slit conjugate to the pupil plane of a human eye. A 1.9-deg spot on the retina is sampled in 1 s. Video observation of the retina...
article 2002
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Walraven, J. (author), Werner, J.S. (author)
The locus of unique white was measured for two observers over a wide range of stimulus intensities, using both direct matching and absolute judgements. Chromaticity coordinates of each observer's unique white were found to be invariant over a range of about 4 log units. This result is discussed in the context of the class of models that explain...
article 1991
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Vos, J.J. (author), Estevez, O. (author), Walraven, P.L. (author), Instituut voor Zintuigfysiologie TNO (author)
New action spectra are derived for the foveal cones on the basis of three assumptions: (1) the Stiles-Burch (1959) colorimetric data are better than CIE 1931; (2) the long wavelength flanks of the dichromatic luminosity functions offer better anchorage than the confusion loci; and (3) the relative mutual heights per receptor can be derived from...
article 1990
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Instituut voor Zintuigfysiologie TNO (author), Heynen, H. (author), van Norren, D. (author)
Responses to 400 msec flashes of white light were recorded at various depth in the retina of the intact macaque eye. A statistical technique, principal component analysis (PCA), was used to isolate independent components from the LERG, using the changing contribution of a cell's response to the LERG with retinal depth. Two approaches were...
article 1985
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Walraven, P.L. (author), Instituut voor Zintuigfysiologie TNO (author)
On the basis of new experimental data of tritanopic vision the convergence centre for tritanopia has been redetermined, and has turned out to bex' = 0.1747,y' = 0.0060 in the Judd 1951-chromaticity diagram. A consequence of this determination is that the blue system is more sensitive than was concluded from the Thomson-Wright (1953) study. The...
article 1974
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Bouman, M.A. (author), Walraven, P.L. (author), Instituut voor Zintuigfysiologie TNO (author)
On the basis of measurements of the achromatic zone for red light in the fovea and for green light in the periphery, a discussion is given on the possible difference in threshold mechanisms for the achromatic (scotopic) and chromatic (photopic) retinal systems. A specific suggestion for this distinction is given that not directly refers to the...
article 1972
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Vos, J.J. (author), Walraven, P.L. (author), Instituut voor Zintuigfysiologie TNO (author)
To derive the fundamental response curves for the three colour mediating systems from the location of the dichromatic confusion centres, one must make certain assumptions on the nature of dichromatism. It is shown, however, that one can avoid to make specific quantitative assumptions by bringing into the picture other visual data, such as the...
article 1971
Searched for: subject%3A%22Photoreceptors%22
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