Searched for: subject:"Gastrointestinal%5C+tract"
(1 - 20 of 26)

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Peters, V.B.M. (author), van de Steeg, E. (author), van Bilsen, J. (author), Meijerink, M. (author)
The human body is exposed to many xenobiotic, potentially harmful compounds. The intestinal immune system is crucial in protecting the human body from these substances. Moreover, many microorganisms, residing in the gastrointestinal tract, play an important role in modulating immune responses. Pre- and probiotics may have beneficial effects on...
article 2019
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van der Voort, M.M. (author), Holm, K.B. (author), Kummer, P.O. (author), Teland, J.A. (author), van Doormaal, J.C.A.M. (author), Dijkers, H.P.A. (author)
An important blast injury mechanism is the rupture of the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract. In explosives safety studies and threat analysis the empirical model of Bowen is often used to quantify this mechanism. The original model predicts the lethality for a person in front of a reflecting surface caused by simple Friedlander blast waves....
article 2016
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Blatchford, P. (author), Ansell, J. (author), de Godoy, M.R.C. (author), Fahey, G. (author), Garcia-Mazcorro, J.F. (author), Gibson, G.R. (author), Goh, Y.J. (author), Hotchkiss, A.T. (author), Hutkins, R. (author), LaCroix, C. (author), Rastall, R.A. (author), Reimer, R.A. (author), Schoterman, M. (author), Van Sinderen, D. (author), Venema, K. (author), Whelan, K. (author)
In October 2012, a group of scientists met at the 10th Meeting of the International Scientific Association of Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) in Cork, Ireland to discuss issues surrounding prebiotics and their development. This article summarises outputs from the meeting. Various prebiotic definitions were discussed and how the concept has...
article 2013
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Venema, K. (author), van den Abbeele, P. (author)
The human gut contains a diverse microbiota with large potential to influence health. Given the difficulty to access the main sites of the gut, in vitro models have been developed to dynamically monitor microbial processes at the site of metabolic activity. These models range from simple batch fermentations to complex multi-compartmental...
article 2013
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Hatanaka, M. (author), Nakamura, Y. (author), Maathuis, A.J.H. (author), Venema, K. (author), Murota, I. (author), Yamamoto, N. (author)
Survival and germination rate of Bacillus subtilis C-3102 spores were investigated in a stomach and small intestine model (TIM-1), while the impact of C-3102 cells that had passed through TIM-1 on human colon microbiota was evaluated in a model of the large intestine (TIM-2). The survival of C-3102 spores in TIM-1 was 99%; 8% of the spores had...
article 2012
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Roeselers, G. (author), Mittge, E.K. (author), Stephens, W.Z. (author), Parichy, D.M. (author), Cavanaugh, C.M. (author), Guillemin, K. (author), Rawls, J.F. (author)
Experimental analysis of gut microbial communities and their interactions with vertebrate hosts is conducted predominantly in domesticated animals that have been maintained in laboratory facilities for many generations. These animal models are useful for studying coevolved relationships between host and microbiota only if the microbial...
article 2011
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Mitea, C. (author), Havenaar, R. (author), Wouter Drijfhout, J. (author), Edens, L. (author), Dekking, L. (author), Koning, F. (author), Dekking, E.H.A. (author), TNO Kwaliteit van Leven (author)
Background: Coeliac disease is caused by an immune response to gluten. As gluten proteins are proline rich they are resistant to enzymatic digestion in the gastrointestinal tract, a property that probably contributes to the immunogenic nature of gluten. Aims: This study determined the efficiency of gluten degradation by a post-proline cutting...
article 2008
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Avantaggiato, G. (author), Havenaar, R. (author), Visconti, A. (author), TNO Kwaliteit van Leven (author)
A laboratory model, set to simulate the in vivo conditions of the porcine gastrointestinal tract, was used to study the small intestinal absorption of several mycotoxins and the effectiveness of Standard Q/FIS (a carbon/aluminosilicate-based product) in reducing mycotoxin absorption when added to multitoxin-contaminated diets. Mycotoxins were...
article 2007
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van de Wiele, T.R. (author), Oomen, A.G. (author), Wragg, J. (author), Cave, M. (author), Minekus, M. (author), Hack, A. (author), Cornelis, C. (author), Rompelberg, C.J.M. (author), de Zwart, L.L. (author), Klinck, B. (author), van Wijnen, J. (author), Verstraete, W. (author), Sips, A.J.A.M. (author), TNO Kwaliteit van Leven (author)
This paper presents a multi-laboratory comparison study of in vitro models assessing bioaccessibility of soil-bound lead in the human gastrointestinal tract under simulated fasted and fed conditions. Oral bioavailability data from a previous human in vivo study on the same soil served as a reference point. In general, the bioaccessible lead...
article 2007
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Tenjarla, S. (author), Romasanta, V. (author), Zeijdner, E. (author), Villa, R. (author), Moro, L. (author), TNO Kwaliteit van Leven (author)
5-Aminosalicylate (5-ASA; mesalamine) is the current first-line treatment for mild to moderate ulcerative colitis, a chronic inflammatory condition that most commonly affects the distal part of the colon. MMX™ mesalamine (Lialda™ [US]; Mezavant™ XL [UK and Ireland]; Mezavant™ [elsewhere]; Shire Pharmaceuticals Inc., Wayne, Pa, under license from...
article 2007
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Egert, M. (author), de Graaf, A.A. (author), Maathuis, A. (author), de Waard, P. (author), Plugge, C.M. (author), Smidt, H. (author), Deutz, N.E.P. (author), Dijkema, C. (author), de Vos, W.M. (author), Venema, K. (author), TNO Kwaliteit van Leven (author)
16S rRNA-based stable isotope probing (SIP) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy-based metabolic profiling were used to identify bacteria fermenting glucose under conditions simulating the human intestine. The TIM-2 in vitro model of the human intestine was inoculated with a GI tract microbiota resembling that of the small intestine...
article 2007
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van den Heuvel, E.G.H.M. (author), Wils, D. (author), Pasman, W.J. (author), Saniez, M.H. (author), Kardinaal, A.F.M. (author), TNO Kwaliteit van Leven (author)
Background: It is well documented that fermentation of carbohydrates that escape digestion exert several effects supposed to be beneficial for (colonic) health, including an increase in stool volume, a shorter intestinal transit time, production of short chain fatty acids and a decrease of colonic pH (Kritchevsky 1988). NUTRIOSE®FB is a dextrin...
article 2005
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Schaafsma, G. (author), TNO Kwaliteit van Leven (author)
Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Score (PDCAAS) is discussed. PDCAAS is now widely used as a routine assay for protein quality evaluation, replacing the more traditional biological methods [e.g., measurement of the Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) in rats]. PDCAAS is based on comparison of the essential amino acid content of a test protein...
article 2005
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Minekus, M. (author), Jelier, M. (author), Xiao, J.-Z. (author), Kondo, S. (author), Iwatsuki, K. (author), Kokubo, S. (author), Bos, M. (author), Dunnewind, B. (author), Havenaar, R. (author), TNO Kwaliteit van Leven (author)
The Addition of a compound that lowers the intestinal uptake of fat and cholesterol might be an interesting strategy to reduce the risk of vascular disease. Partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) has been shown to have this effect in healthy volunteers after intake of a yogurt drink with 3 to 6% PHGG. In the present study a yogurt drink with 3%...
article 2005
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Blanquet, S. (author), Zeijdner, E. (author), Beyssac, E. (author), Meunier, J.-P. (author), Denis, S. (author), Havenaar, R. (author), Alric, M. (author), TNO Voeding (author)
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the potential of a dynamic, multicompartmental in vitro system simulating the human stomach and small intestine (TIM-1) for studying the behavior of oral drug dosage forms under various physiological gastrointestinal conditions. Methods. Two model drug compounds were studied in TIM-1: a...
article 2004
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Verwei, M. (author), Arkbåge, K. (author), Mocking, H. (author), Havenaar, R. (author), Groten, J. (author), TNO Voeding (author)
Despite its low natural folate concentration, milk is responsible for 10-15% of the daily folate intake in countries with a high dairy consumption. Milk products can be considered as a potential matrix for folate fortification, e.g., with synthetic folic acid, to enhance the daily intake of folate. In untreated milk, the natural folate, 5...
article 2004
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Avantaggiato, G. (author), Havenaar, R. (author), Visconti, A. (author), TNO Voeding (author)
In vitro screening of 14 adsorbent materials, including some commercial products used to detoxify Fusarium-mycotoxins, were tested in the pH range of 3-8 for deoxynivalenol (DON)- and nivalenol (NIV)-binding ability. Only activated carbon showed to be effective with binding capacities of 35.1 μmol and 8.8 μmol DON and NIV/g adsorbent,...
article 2004
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van Ommen, B. (author), de Bie, A.T.H.J. (author), Bär, A. (author), TNO Voeding (author)
The absorption, disposition, metabolism, and excretion of uniformly 14C-labeled α-cyclodextrin (14C-α-CD) was examined in four separate experiments with Wistar rats. In Experiment 1, 14C-α-CD (25μCi, 50mg/kg bw) was administered intravenously to four male and four female conventional rats. In Experiment 2, 14C-α-CD (25μCi, 200mg/kg bw) was given...
article 2004
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Krul, C.A.M. (author), Zeilmaker, M.J. (author), Schothorst, R.C. (author), Havenaar, R. (author), TNO Voeding (author)
Human exposure to carcinogenic N-alkylnitrosamines can occur exogenously via food consumption or endogenously by formation of these compounds through nitrosation of amine precursors. Information on the intragastric formation of NDMA from complex mixtures of precursors and inhibitors in humans is not available. In this study the formation of N...
article 2004
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Blanquet, S. (author), Meunier, J.P. (author), Minekus, M. (author), Marol-Bonnin, S. (author), Alric, M. (author), Centraal Instituut voor Voedingsonderzoek TNO (author)
The use of genetically engineered microorganisms such as bacteria or yeasts as live vehicles to carry out bioconversion directly in the digestive environment is an important challenge for the development of innovative biodrugs. A system that mimics the human gastrointestinal tract was combined with a computer simulation to evaluate the survival...
article 2003
Searched for: subject:"Gastrointestinal%5C+tract"
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