Searched for: subject%3A%22Electric%255C%2Bresistance%22
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Villa, S. (author), Aninat, R. (author), Yilmaz, P. (author), Kingma, A. (author), Dziechciarz, M. (author), van den Berg, J. (author), Bakker, K. (author), Theelen, M. (author)
Moisture ingress is known to be one of the most frequent and detrimental causes of photovoltaic (PV) modules degradation. In an original approach, the present work applies the full analytic capability of lab-scale equipment to characterize a commercial Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 (CIGS) module that degraded in the field due to moisture ingress. By...
article 2023
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Bakker, K. (author), Assen, S. (author), Rasia, A. (author), Barreau, N. (author), Weeber, A. (author), Theelen, M. (author)
Partial shading of PV modules can lead to degradation of the shaded cells. The degradation originates from a reverse bias voltage over the shaded cells. In order to mitigate reverse bias damage in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) modules, a good understanding of the fundamental mechanisms governing the reverse characteristic is required. In this study, a...
article 2022
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Ruggeri, E. (author), van Aken, B.B. (author), Isabella, O. (author), Zeman, M. (author)
Imaging techniques, like electroluminescence and dark lock-in thermography, are valuable quality control tools as they yield quantitative and spatially resolved information about the device. In this paper, we isolated some of the conductive foil– cell interconnections of back-contact solar cells to study the appearance of these intentional...
article 2018
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Teunissen, J.P. (author), Abbel, R. (author), Hendriks, R. (author), Groen, P. (author)
The necessary metal-based inks typically consist of silver nanoparticles dispersed in a liquid carrier medium. In order to keep the ink stable and printable, the agglomeration and sedimentation of these functional components need to be prevented as long as they are not printed onto a substrate. This is typically done by the addition of organic ...
bookPart 2017
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Polder, R.B. (author), de Rooij, M.R. (author), Larsen, C.K. (author), Pedersen, B. (author)
Blast furnace slag cement (BFSC) has been used in reinforced concrete structures in marine and road environment in The Netherlands for nearly a century. Experience is good and long service lives can be obtained. In Norway experience with BFSC is scarce. In The Netherlands, a high resistance against chloride penetration and a high electrical...
conference paper 2016
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Ben Messaoud, K. (author), Buffière, M. (author), Brammertz, G. (author), ElAnzeery, H. (author), Oueslati, S. (author), Hamon, J. (author), Kniknie, B.J. (author), Meuris, M. (author), Amlouk, M. (author), Poortmans, J. (author)
Modification of the absorber surface properties by Cd2+ treatment (Cd2+ partial electrolyte) results in the following: formation of Cd(OH)2 on the absorber surface, deposition of thinner chemical bath-deposited CdS buffer layer, and a smaller space charge region. The impact on electrical performances is as follows: decrease of the series...
article 2015
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Vogt, L.M. (author), Meyer, D. (author), Pullens, G. (author), Faas, M.M. (author), Venema, K. (author), Ramasamy, U. (author), Schols, H.A. (author), de Vos, P. (author)
Dietary fiber intake is associated with lower incidence and mortality from disease, but the underlying mechanisms of these protective effects are unclear.We hypothesized that β2→1-fructan dietary fibers confer protection on intestinal epithelial cell barrier function via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), and we studied whether β2→1-fructan chain...
article 2014
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Pacheco, J. (author), Šavija, B. (author), Schlangen, E. (author), Polder, R.B. (author)
The durability of cracked reinforced concrete is a serious concern in the construction industry. Cracks represent fast routes for chloride penetration, which can result in reinforcement corrosion. Bending or tapered cracks have the characteristic of being wider at the surface and becoming narrower towards the reinforcement. In reinforced...
article 2014
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Westerhout, J. (author), van de Steeg, E. (author), Grossouw, D. (author), Zeijdner, E.E. (author), Krul, C.A.M. (author), Verwei, M. (author), Wortelboer, H.M. (author)
A reliable prediction of the oral bioavailability in humans is crucial and of high interest for pharmaceutical and food industry. The predictive value of currently used in silico methods, in vitro cell lines, ex vivo intestinal tissue and/or in vivo animal studies for human intestinal absorption, however, is often insufficient, especially when...
article 2014
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Leonov, V. (author), Vullers, R.J.M. (author), Hoof, C.V. (author)
Integration of thermopiles in garments has been performed in this work in different ways. It is shown that textile has a minor effect on power generation, which enables completely hidden and unobtrusive energy harvester. A one-milliwatt thermoelectric generator is then integrated between two layers of a shirt and its characteristics are reported...
conference paper 2012
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Galagan, Y.O. (author), Rubingh, J.E.J.M. (author), Andriessen, H.A.J.M. (author), Fan, C.C. (author), Blom, P.W.M. (author), Veenstra, S.C. (author), Kroon, J.M. (author)
The presence of a transparent conductive electrode such as indium tin oxide (ITO) limits the reliability and cost price of organic photovoltaic devices as it is brittle and expensive. Moreover, the relative high sheet resistance of an ITO electrode on flexible substrates limits the maximum width of a single cell. We have developed an alternative...
article 2011
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Meekes, J.A.C. (author), Zhang, X. (author), Abdul Fattah, R. (author)
Geophysical monitoring of the dynamical behavior of subsurface reservoirs (oil, gas, CO2) remains an important issue in geophysical research. A new idea for reservoir monitoring based on electrical resistivity tomography was developed at TNO. The essential element of the so-called BSEMT (Borehole to Surface Electrical Monitoring Technique)...
conference paper 2011
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Polder, R.B. (author), TNO Bouw en Ondergrond (author)
The critical chloride content for initiation of reinforcement corrosion is an essential element in service life design and modelling of concrete structures.The critical content is laden with questions regarding its definition, experimental assessment and practical aspects. It should be addressed by a statistical approach. The paper discusses...
article 2009
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Zuang, V. (author), Alonso, M.A. (author), Botham, P.A. (author), Eskes, C. (author), Fentem, J. (author), Liebsch, M. (author), van de Sandt, J.J.M. (author), TNO Kwaliteit van Leven (author)
article 2005
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van Nuenen, M.H.M.C. (author), de Ligt, R.A.F. (author), Doornbos, R.P. (author), van der Woude, J.C.J. (author), Kuipers, E.J. (author), Venema, K. (author), TNO Kwaliteit van Leven (author)
Microbial metabolites may influence the metabolic integrity of intestinal epithelial cells and induce mucosal immune responses. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the microbial metabolites butyrate, iso-valerate, and ammonium on Caco-2 cells and macrophages. Barrier functioning was determined by measuring transepithelial electrical...
article 2005
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Coecke, S. (author), Blaauboer, B.J. (author), Elaut, G. (author), Freeman, S. (author), Freidig, A. (author), Gensmantel, N. (author), Hoet, P. (author), Kapoulas, V.M. (author), Ladstetter, B. (author), Langley, G. (author), Leahy, D. (author), Mannens, G. (author), Meneguz, A. (author), Monshouwer, M. (author), Nemery, B. (author), Pelkonen, O. (author), Pfaller, W. (author), Prieto, P. (author), Proctor, N. (author), Rogiers, V. (author), Rostami-Hodjegan, A. (author), Sabbioni, E. (author), Steiling, W. (author), van de Sandt, J.J.M. (author), TNO Kwaliteit van Leven (author)
article 2005
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Seijmonsbergen, A.C. (author), Biewinga, D.T. (author), Pruissers, A.P. (author)
The apparent electrical conductivity of the subsurface along the Dutch coast between 'Wassenaarse Slag' (beach post 92.250) and north of Noordwijk aan Zee (beach post 77.750) reflects the spatial distribution of Holocene coastal deposits. Using a Geonics EM-34 a threefold division based on the mean electrical conductivity could be made in the...
article 2004
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Prins Maurits Laboratorium TNO (author), Evenblij, B.H. (author), Ferreira, J.A. (author)
In switching Power Electronics circuits inductive parasitics of wiring and components contribute substantially to the current and voltage waveforms. This article addresses the theoretical basis as well as the implementation and validation of the incorporation of these inductances in a computerised circuit simulation. The program presented in...
conference paper 2001
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Duizer, E. (author), Gilde, A.J. (author), Versantvoort, C.H.M. (author), Groten, J.P. (author), Centraal Instituut voor Voedingsonderzoek TNO (author)
In the present study we characterized the functional and structural disruption of the paracellular barrier of intestinal epithelium in vitro in relation to cytotoxicity after apical Cd2+ exposure. For that purpose filter-grown Caco-2 and IEC-18 cells were apically exposed to 5 to 100 μM CdCl2 for 4 or 14 h. It was found that the effects of Cd2+...
article 1999
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Duizer, E. (author), van der Wulp, C. (author), Versantvoort, C.H.M. (author), Groten, J.P. (author), Centraal Instituut voor Voedingsonderzoek TNO (author)
Palmitoyl carnitine chloride (PCC) has been shown to be an effective enhancer of intestinal transport of hydrophilic molecules. The exact mechanism by which the epithelial barrier function is decreased is not clear. In an attempt to elucidate the mechanism of action of PCC, we studied the relationship among absorption enhancement, cell viability...
article 1998
Searched for: subject%3A%22Electric%255C%2Bresistance%22
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