Searched for: subject:"Animals"
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Adams, T.B. (author), Gavin, C.L. (author), Taylor, S.V. (author), Waddell, W.J. (author), Cohen, S.M. (author), Feron, V.J. (author), Goodman, J. (author), Rietjens, I.M.C.M. (author), Marnett, L.J. (author), Portoghese, P.S. (author), Smith, R.L. (author), TNO Kwaliteit van Leven (author), KvL (author)
This publication is the 12th in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavoring substances under conditions of intended use. Since then, the number of flavoring...
article 2008
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Arts, J.H.E. (author), Muijser, H. (author), Jonker, D. (author), van de Sandt, J.J.M. (author), Bos, P.M.J. (author), Feron, V.J. (author), TNO Kwaliteit van Leven (author)
The OECD Health Effects Test Guidelines (TGs) provide guidance concerning the use of methods for the identification and characterization of hazards from chemical substances. These TGs are largely based on tests in routine use for many years and are known to yield information relevant to various types of toxicity. They have proven their value in...
article 2008
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Adams, T.B. (author), McGowen, M.M. (author), Williams, M.C. (author), Cohen, S.M. (author), Feron, V.J. (author), Goodman, J.I. (author), Marnett, L.J. (author), Munro, I.C. (author), Portoghese, P.S. (author), Smith, R.L. (author), Waddell, W.J. (author), TNO Kwaliteit van Leven (author)
This publication is the 11th in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavoring substances under conditions of intended use. The list of GRAS substances has now...
article 2007
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Adams, T.B. (author), Cohen, S.M. (author), Doull, J. (author), Feron, V.J. (author), Goodman, J.I. (author), Marnett, L.J. (author), Munro, I.C. (author), Portoghese, P.S. (author), Smith, R.L. (author), Waddell, W.J. (author), Wagner, B.M. (author), TNO Kwaliteit van Leven (author)
This publication is the ninth in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavoring substances under conditions of intended use. Elements that are fundamental to the...
article 2005
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Adams, T.B. (author), Cohen, S.M. (author), Doull, J. (author), Feron, V.J. (author), Goodman, J.I. (author), Marnett, L.J. (author), Munro, I.C. (author), Portoghese, P.S. (author), Smith, R.L. (author), Waddell, W.J. (author), Wagner, B.M. (author), TNO Kwaliteit van Leven (author)
This publication is the ninth in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavoring substances under conditions of intended use. Elements that are fundamental to the...
article 2005
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Adams, T.B. (author), Cohen, S.M. (author), Doull, J. (author), Feron, V.J. (author), Goodman, J.I. (author), Marnett, L.J. (author), Munro, I.C. (author), Portoghese, P.S. (author), Smith, R.L. (author), Waddell, W.J. (author), Wagner, B.M. (author), TNO Kwaliteit van Leven (author)
This publication is the eighth in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). In 1993, the panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavoring substances under conditions of intended use. Elements that are fundamental to...
article 2005
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Smith, R.L. (author), Adams, T.B. (author), Cohen, S.M. (author), Doull, J. (author), Feron, V.J. (author), Goodman, J.I. (author), Hall, R.L. (author), Marnett, L.J. (author), Portoghese, P.S. (author), Waddell, W.J. (author), Wagner, B.M. (author), TNO Voeding (author)
Natural flavour complexes (NFCs) are chemical mixtures obtained by applying physical separation methods to botanical sources. Many NFCs are derived from foods. In the present paper, a 12-step procedure for the safety evaluation of NFCs, 'the naturals paradigm', is discussed. This procedure, which is not intended to be viewed as a rigid check...
article 2004
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Feron, V.J. (author), Groten, J.P. (author), Centraal Instituut voor Voedingsonderzoek TNO (author)
This paper addresses major developments in the safety evaluation of chemical mixtures during the past 15 years, reviews today's state of the art of mixture toxicology, and discusses challenges ahead. Well-thought-out tailor-made mechanistic and empirical designs for studying the toxicity of mixtures have gradually substituted trial-and-error...
article 2002
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Smith, R.L. (author), Adams, T.B. (author), Doull, J. (author), Feron, V.J. (author), Goodman, J.I. (author), Marnett, L.J. (author), Portoghese, P.S. (author), Waddell, W.J. (author), Wagner, B.M. (author), Rogers, A.E. (author), Caldwell, J. (author), Sipes, I.G. (author), Instituut CIVO-Toxicologie en Voeding TNO (author)
This publication is the seventh in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers' Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavouring substances under conditions of intended use. In this review, scientific data...
article 2002
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Tajima, O. (author), Schoen, E.D. (author), Feron, V.J. (author), Groten, J.P. (author), Centraal Instituut voor Voedingsonderzoek TNO (author)
This paper presents a test strategy to detect interactive effects between several mycotoxins using a DNA synthesis inhibition assay in L929 cells. The joint action of the Fusarium mycotoxins T-2 toxin (T2), deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), zearalenone (ZEA) and fumonisin (FB1) was studied in a tiered approach. In the first stage, the...
article 2002
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Arts, J.H.E. (author), Mojet, J. (author), van Gemert, L.J. (author), Emmen, H.H. (author), Lammers, J.H.C.M. (author), Marquart, J. (author), Woutersen, R.A. (author), Feron, V.J. (author), TNO Voeding (author)
Studies on the irritative effects of acetone vapor in humans and experimental animals have revealed large differences in the lowest acetone concentration found to be irritative to the respiratory tract and eyes. This has brought on much confusion in the process of setting occupational exposure limits for acetone. A literature survey was carried...
article 2002
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Seeley, M.R. (author), Tonner-Navarro, L.E. (author), Beck, B.D. (author), Deskin, R. (author), Feron, V.J. (author), Johanson, G. (author), Bolt, H.M. (author)
This report compares cancer classification systems, health risk assessment approaches, and procedures used for establishing occupational exposure limits (OELs), in various European countries and scientific organizations. The objectives were to highlight and compare key aspects of these processes and to identify the basis for differences in...
article 2001
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Feron, V.J. (author), Kittel, B. (author), Kuper, C.F. (author), Ernst, H. (author), Rittinghausen, S. (author), Muhle, H. (author), Koch, W. (author), Gamer, A. (author), Mallett, A.K. (author), Hoffmann, H.D. (author), TNO Voeding Centraal Instituut voor Voedingsonderzoek TNO (author)
Two independent bioassays are available which have examined the potential carcinogenicity of monomeric and polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) following long-term inhalation exposure in rats. These studies are not directly comparable, however, due to differences in design and conduct of the in-life phase, and differences in...
article 2001
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Feron, V.J. (author), Arts, J.H.E. (author), Kuper, C.F. (author), Slootweg, P.J. (author), Woutersen, R.A. (author)
Health risks of inhaled nasal toxicants were reviewed with emphasis on chemically induced nasal lesions in humans, sensory irritation, olfactory and trigeminal nerve toxicity, nasal immunopathology and carcinogenesis, nasal responses to chemical mixtures, in vitro models, and nasal dosimetry- and metabolism-based extrapolation of nasal data in...
article 2001
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Clary, J.J. (author), Feron, V.J. (author), van Velthuijsen, J.A. (author), TNO Voeding (author)
Organo psycho syndrome (OPS) or chronic toxic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurotoxic condition reported following long-term exposure to paints containing organic solvent and to other solvents. Lactate esters are finding wider use as solvents. Lactate esters have been well studied in standard toxicity tests, but specific neurotoxicity studies have...
article 2001
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Krul, C.A.M. (author), Luiten-Schuite, A. (author), Baan, R. (author), Verhagen, H. (author), Mohn, G. (author), Feron, V. (author), Havenaar, R. (author)
The TNO gastro-Intestinal tract Model (TIM) is a dynamic computer-controlled in vitro system that mimics the human physiological conditions in the stomach and small intestine. In the current TIM physiological parameters such as pH, temperature, peristaltic movements, secretion of digestion enzymes, bile and pancreatic juices, and absorption of...
article 2000
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Feron, V.J. (author), Schwarz, M. (author), Hemminki, K. (author), Krewski, D. (author), Centraal Instituut voor Voedingsonderzoek TNO (author)
article 1999
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Woutersen, R.A. (author), Wolterbeek, A.P.M. (author), Appel, M.J. (author), van den Berg, H. (author), Goldbohm, R.A. (author), Feron, V.J. (author), Centraal Instituut voor Voedingsonderzoek TNO (author)
The safety of β-carotene was reassessed by evaluating the relevant literature on the beneficial and adverse effects of β-carotene on cancer and, in particular, by evaluating the results of toxicity studies. β- Carotene appeared neither genotoxic nor reprotoxic or teratogenic, and no signs of organ toxicity have been found in subacute, subchronic...
article 1999
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Feron, V.J. (author), Cassee, F.R. (author), Groten, J.P. (author), Centraal Instituut voor Voedingsonderzoek TNO (author)
This paper reviews major activities outside the United States on human health issues related to chemical mixtures. In Europe an international study group on combination effects has been formed and has started by defining synergism and antagonism. Successful research programs in Europe include the development and application of statistically...
article 1998
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Clary, J.J. (author), Feron, V.J. (author), van Velthuijsen, J.A. (author), Centraal Instituut voor Voedingsonderzoek TNO (author)
Lactate eaters have an oral LD50 greater than 2000 mg/kg and the inhalation LC50 is generally above 5000 mg/m3 and they may be potential eye and skin irritants, but not skin sensitizers. No evidence of teratogenicity or maternal toxicity was observed in an inhalation (2-ethylhexyl-L-lactate) or dermal study (ethyl-L-lactate). Subacute inhalation...
article 1998
Searched for: subject:"Animals"
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