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Bijl, P. (author), Hogervorst, M.A. (author), Toet, A. (author)
The Triangle Orientation Discrimination (TOD) methodology includes i) a widely applicable, accurate end-to-end EO/IR sensor test, ii) an image-based sensor system model and iii) a Target Acquisition (TA) range model. The method has been extensively validated against TA field performance for a wide variety of well- and under-sampled imagers,...
conference paper 2017
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Repasi, E. (author), Bijl, P. (author), Labarre, L. (author), Wittenstein, W. (author), Bürsing, H. (author)
ECOMOS is a multinational effort within the framework of an EDA Project Arrangement. Its aim is to provide a generally accepted and harmonized European computer model for computing nominal Target Acquisition (TA) ranges of optronic imagers operating in the Visible or thermal Infrared (IR). The project involves close co-operation of defence and...
conference paper 2017
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Schwering, P.B.W. (author), Kemp, R.A.W. (author), Schutte, K. (author)
Recognition and identification ranges are limited to the quality of the images. Both the received contrast and the spatial resolution determine if objects are recognizable. Several aspects affect the image quality. First of all the sensor itself. The image quality depends on the size of the infrared detector array and the sensitivity. Second,...
conference paper 2013
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van Eekeren, A.W.M. (author), Schutte, K. (author), Dijk, J. (author), Schwering, P.B.W. (author)
A well-known phenomena that diminishes the recognition range in infrared imagery is atmospheric turbulence. In literature many methods are described that try to compensate for the distortions caused by atmospheric turbulence. Most of these methods use a global processing approach in which they assume a global shift and a uniform blurring in all...
conference paper 2013
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de Jong, A.N. (author), Schwering, P.B.W. (author), Benoist, K.W. (author), Gunter, W.H. (author), Vrahimis, G. (author), October, F.J. (author)
During the FATMOSE trial, held over the False Bay (South Africa) from November 2009 until October 2010, day and night (24/7) high resolution images were collected of point sources at a range of 15.7 km. Simultaneously, data were collected on atmospheric parameters, as relevant for the turbulence conditions: air- and sea temperature, windspeed,...
conference paper 2012
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Dijk, J. (author), Schutte, K. (author), van Eekeren, A.W.M. (author), Bijl, P. (author)
For many military operations situational awareness is of great importance. This situational awareness and related tasks such as Target Acquisition can be acquired using cameras, of which the resolution is an important characteristic. Super resolution reconstruction algorithms can be used to improve the effective sensor resolution. In order to...
conference paper 2012
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van Eekeren, A.W.M. (author), Schutte, K. (author), Dijk, J. (author), Schwering, P.B.W. (author), van Iersel, M. (author), Doelman, N.J. (author)
In general, long range visual detection, recognition and identification are hampered by turbulence caused by atmospheric conditions. Much research has been devoted to the field of turbulence compensation. One of the main advantages of turbulence compensation is that it enables visual identification over larger distances. In many (military)...
conference paper 2012
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van Eekeren, A.W.M. (author), Kruithof, M.C. (author), Schutte, K. (author), Dijk, D. (author), van Iersel, M. (author), Schwering, P.B.W. (author)
Infrared imagery over long ranges is hampered by atmospheric turbulence effects, leading to spatial resolutions worse than expected by a diffraction limited sensor system. This diminishes the recognition range and it is therefore important to compensate visual degradation due to atmospheric turbulence. The amount of turbulence is spatially...
conference paper 2012
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TNO Defensie en Veiligheid (author), Bijl, P. (author), Hogervorst, M.A. (author)
Detector sampling and optical blur are two major factors affecting Target Acquisition (TA) performance with modern EO and IR systems. In order to quantify their relative significance, we simulated five realistic LWIR and MWIR sensors from very under-sampled (detector pitch d >> diffraction blur Fλ) to well-sampled (Fλ >> d). Next, we...
conference paper 2009
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TNO Defensie en Veiligheid (author), Bijl, P. (author), de Vries, S.C. (author)
Video of Visual Acuity (VA) and Contrast Sensitivity (CS) test charts in a complex background was recorded using a CCD camera mounted on a computer-controlled tripod and fed into real-time MPEG2 compression/decompression equipment. The test charts were based on the Triangle Orientation Discrimination (TOD) test method and contained triangle test...
conference paper 2009
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TNO Defensie en Veiligheid (author), de Jong, A.N. (author), Schwering, P.B.W. (author), Fritz, P.J. (author), Gunter, W.H. (author)
During the False Bay trial (June 2007), the performance of a set of three optical sensors was tested against several small surface targets in a coastal area: a hyperspectral camera, a camera with a rotating polarization filter and a high resolution camera. One objective was the validation of a contrast and clutter model for the visual spectral...
conference paper 2009
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TNO Defensie en Veiligheid (author), Dijk, J. (author), Bijl, P. (author), Bouma, H. (author)
Recently new techniques for night-vision cameras are developed. Digital image-intensifiers are becoming available on the market. Also, so-called EMCCD cameras are developed, which may even be able to record color information about the scene. However, in low-light situations all night-vision imagery becomes noisy. In this paper we evaluate the...
conference paper 2009
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Salem, S. (author), Jacobs, E. (author), Moore, R. (author), Hogervorst, M.A. (author), Bijl, P. (author), TNO Defensie en Veiligheid (author)
Perception tests establish the effects of spatially band-limited noise and blur on human observer performance. Previously, Bijl showed that the contrast threshold of a target image with spatially band-limited noise is a function of noise spatial frequency. He used the method of adjustment to find the contrast thresholds for each noise frequency...
conference paper 2008
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TNO Defensie en Veiligheid (author), Schleijpen, H.M.A. (author), van den Heuvel, J.C. (author), Mieremet, A.J. (author), Mellier, B. (author), van Putten, F.J.M. (author)
Laser countermeasures against infrared focal plane array cameras aim to saturate the full camera image. In this paper we will discuss the results of three different dazzling experiments performed with MWIR lasers and show that the obtained results are independent of the read-out mechanism of the camera and can be explained by an expression...
conference paper 2007
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TNO Defensie en Veiligheid (author), Bijl, P. (author), Schutte, K. (author), Hogervorst, M.A. (author)
Current end-to-end sensor performance measures such as the TOD, MRT, DMRT and MTDP were developed to describe Target Acquisition performance for static imaging. Recent developments in sensor technology (e.g. microscan) and image enhancement techniques (e.g. Super Resolution and Scene-Based Non-Uniformity Correction) require that a sensor...
conference paper 2006
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TNO Defensie en Veiligheid (author), Hogervorst, M.A. (author), Toet, A. (author), Bijl, P. (author)
We determined the relationship between search performance with a limited field of view (FOV) and several scanning- and scene parameters in human observer experiments. The observers (38 trained army scouts) searched through a large search sector for a target (a camouflaged person) on a heath. From trial to trial the target appeared at a different...
conference paper 2005
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TNO Defensie en Veiligheid (author), Bijl, P. (author), Lucassen, M.P. (author)
If images from multiple sources (e.g. from the different bands of a multi-band sensor) are displayed in color, Signal and Noise may appear as luminance and color differences in the image. As a consequence, the perception of color differences may be important for Target Acquisition performance with fused imagery. Luminance and color can be...
conference paper 2005
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Bijl, P. (author), Hogervorst, M.A. (author), Toet, A. (author), TNO Technische Menskunde (author)
We investigate the effect of band-limited masking noise and blur on the minimum contrast required to identify a) military targets, b) the standard MRTD and MTDP four-bar test pattern and c) the TOD equilateral triangle test pattern. First, the image containing the test object was spatially blurred by an amount varying from one pixel up to the...
conference paper 2004
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Hogervorst, M.A. (author), Bijl, P. (author), Toet, A. (author), Miller, B. (author)
We present a new measure called target identifiability, as an efficient alternative for measuring identification scores. Identifiability is operationally defined as the amount of blur required to reduce the target signature to its identification threshold. It can quickly be determined using a simple adjustment procedure. To validate the new...
conference paper 2004
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TNO Technische Menskunde (author), Hogervorst, M.A. (author), Bijl, P. (author), Valeton, J.M. (author)
The standard way to characterize sensor performance is by means of the Minimum Resolvable Temperature Difference (MRTD) and Minimum Resolvable Contrast (MRC) methods. These methods are based on Fourier analysis and work reasonably well for linear (analogue) systems. However, nonlinear effects, such as sampling, are not properly accounted for. As...
conference paper 2001
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