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Valente Pais, A.R. (author), Mulder, M. (author), van Paassen, M.M. (author), Wentink, M. (author), Groen, E.L. (author), TNO Defensie en Veiligheid (author)
Knowledge of thresholds for perception of inertial motion is needed for the design of simulator motion filters. Experiments have generally been done to measure these thresholds in isolation, one motion at the time. In vehicle simulation however, several motions occur concurrently. In a flight simulator, both inertial and visual cues are provided...
conference paper 2006
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Groen, E.L. (author), Wentink, M. (author), Valente Pais, A.R. (author), Mulder, M. (author), van Paassen, M.M. (author), TNO Defensie en Veiligheid (author)
Pilot perception models include detailed descriptions of the sensory dynamics involved in human spatial orientation. For example, the TNO Spatial Orientation model contains transfer functions of the visual and vestibular system (semicircular canals and otoliths). In our previous attempts to apply this model for the validation of simulator motion...
conference paper 2006
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van Loon, J.J.W.A. (author), Wuyts, F. (author), Bäcker, N. (author), Berte, J. (author), Bok, K. (author), Bos, J. (author), Groen, E. (author), Boyle, R. (author), Bravenoer, N. (author), Eekhoff, M. (author), Chouker, A. (author), Clement, G. (author), Cras, P. (author), Denise, P. (author), Felsenberg, D. (author), Fong, K. (author), Fuller, C. (author), Heer, M. (author), Hinghofer-Szalkay, H. (author), Iwase, S. (author), Karemaker, J.M. (author), Linnarsson, D. (author), Lüthen, C. (author), Mulder, E. (author), Narici, M. (author), Norsk, P. (author), Paloski, W. (author), Rutten, M. (author), Saggini, R. (author), Stephan, A. (author), Ullrich, O. (author), Vautmans, L. (author), Young, L. (author), TNO Defensie en Veiligheid (author)
Over the last decades a significant body of knowledge has been gained on the adaptation of the human body going into near weightlessness conditions as well as for the re-adaptation to 1xg Earth conditions after an orbital space flight. Ground-based paradigms for microgravity simulation have been developed such as head down tilted bed rest or dry...
conference paper 2009
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Landman, H.M. (author), Groen, E.L. (author), van Paassen, R. (author), Bronkhorst, A.W. (author), Mulder, M. (author)
Introducing the element of surprise is one of the main challenges in simulator training of in-flight emergencies. In this simulator study, we investigated the differences in performance between predictable and surprising circumstances, in order to obtain insight into the transfer of training between predictable training settings and surprising...
conference paper 2017
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Landman, H.M. (author), Groen, E.L. (author), van Paassen, M.M. (author), Bronkhorst, A.W. (author), Mulder, M. (author)
Objective: A conceptual model is proposed in order to explain pilot performance in surprising and startling situations. Background: Today’s debate around loss of control following in-flight events and the implementation of upset prevention and recovery training has highlighted the importance of pilots’ ability to deal with unexpected events....
article 2017
document
Landman, H.M. (author), Groen, E.L. (author), van Paassen, M.M. (author), Bronkhorst, A.W. (author), Mulder, M. (author)
Objective: The aim of this study was to test if performance of airline pilots, in performing an aerodynamic stall recovery procedure, decreases when they are surprised, compared to when they anticipate a stall event. Background: New flight-safety regulations for commercial aviation recommend the introduction of surprise and startle in upset...
article 2017
document
Landman, H.M. (author), van Oorschot, P. (author), van Paassen, M.M. (author), Groen, E.L. (author), Bronkhorst, A.W. (author), Mulder, M. (author)
Objective: This study tested whether simulator-based training of pilot responses to unexpected or novel events can be improved by including unpredictability and variability in training scenarios. Background: Current regulations allow for highly predictable and invariable training, which may not be sufficient to prepare pilots for unexpected or...
article 2018
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Landman, H.M. (author), Groen, E.L. (author), Frank, M. (author), Steinhardt, G. (author), van Paassen, R. (author), Bronkhorst, A.W. (author), Mulder, M. (author)
Aviation safety organizations have recommended that airline pilots are trained for startle and surprise. However, little information is available on useful training interventions. Therefore, a training intervention trial was executed during airline recurrent simulator training. The method consisted of a slow visual scan from the side-window,...
conference paper 2019
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Landman, A. (author), Davies, S. (author), Groen, E.L. (author), van Paassen, M.M.R. (author), Lawson, N.J. (author), Bronkhorst, A.W. (author), Mulder, M. (author)
We hypothesized that an incorrect expectation due to spatial disorientation may induce roll reversal errors. To test this, an in-flight experiment was performed, in which forty non-pilots rolled wings level after receiving motion cues. A No-leans condition (subthreshold motion to a bank angle) was included, as well as a Leans-opposite condition ...
article 2019
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Landman, H.M. (author), van Middelaar, S. (author), Groen, E.L. (author), van Paassen, R. (author), Bronkhorst, A.W. (author), Mulder, M. (author)
Several checklist-based methods have been proposed to help pilots manage startle in unexpected situations. In the current experiment, we tested how pilots reacted to using such a method, which featured the mnemonic COOL: Calm down – Observe – Outline – Lead. Using a motion-based simulator outfitted with a non-linear aerodynamic model of a small...
conference paper 2019
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Landman, A. (author), van Middelaar, S.H. (author), Groen, E.L. (author), van Paassen, M.M. (author), Bronkhorst, A.W. (author), Mulder, M. (author)
Background: Mnemonic-type startle and surprise procedures were previously proposed to help pilots cope with startle and surprise in-flight, but effects on performance after procedure execution have not yet been investigated. Objective: Thus, we tested the effectiveness a new mnemonic-type procedure in a moving-base simulator with a non-linear...
article 2020
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van den Hoed, A. (author), Landman, A. (author), van Baelen, D. (author), van Paassen, R. (author), Groen, E.L. (author), Mulder, M. (author)
Objective: We tested whether a procedure in a hexapod simulator can cause incorrect assumptions of the bank angle (i.e., the “leans”) in airline pilots as well as incorrect interpretations of the attitude indicator (AI). Background: The effect of the leans on interpretation errors has previously been demonstrated in nonpilots. In-flight,...
article 2020
document
Landman, A. (author), Groen, E.L. (author), van Paassen, M.M.R. (author), Bronkhorst, A.W. (author), Mulder, M. (author)
Previous studies show that pilots sometimes make roll reversal errors (RREs) when responding to the aircraft bank angle shown on the attitude indicator (AI). This is suggestive of a perceptual ambiguity in the AI. In the current study, we investigated whether expectation contributes to such misperception. Twenty nonpilots performed tasks in a...
article 2020
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Landman, A. (author), van den Hoed, A. (author), van Baelen, D. (author), Stroosma, O. (author), van Paassen, R.M.M. (author), Groen, E.L. (author), Mulder, M. (author)
Ground-based demonstration of spatial disorientation (SD) has been recommended for military as well as commercial pilot training. Although the leans illusion is the most common form of SD, no data exist yet of an effective ground-based leans procedure for a hexapod simulator. In this paper we describe the development of such a procedure and its...
conference paper 2021
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