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van Winsum, W. (author), Godthelp, J. (author), TNO Technische Menskunde (author)
The relation between speed choice and steering performance during curve negotiation was studied in a driving simulator. The hypothesis was that curve radius and steering competence both affect steering error during curve driving, resulting in compensatory speed choice. In this, the control of safety margins was assumed to operate as a regulatory...
article 1996
document
Roemer, M. (author), Builtjes, P. (author), Esser, P. (author), Guicherit, R. (author), Thijsse, T. (author)
Measurements of C2-C5 hydrocarbons on an hourly basis at the TNO site in Delft from 1982 to 1984 and at Moerdijk over the period 1981-1991 are presented. In combination with meteorological data (wind direction and wind speed) the Delft and Moerdijk series are evaluated to identify source categories, annual variations, background concentrations...
article 1999
document
van Winsum, W. (author), Brookhuis, K.A. (author), de Waard, D. (author), TNO Human Factors Research Institute (author)
Three experiments are presented in which the accuracy of different methods to approximate time-to-line crossing is assessed. In the first experiment TLC was computed, using a trigonometric method, during normal driving while the vehicle stayed in lane. The minima of TLC were compared with two approximations and it was found computing TLC as...
article 2000
document
Miedema, H.M.E. (author), Oudshoorn, C.G.M. (author), TNO Preventie en Gezondheid (author)
We present a model of the distribution of noise annoyance with the mean varying as a function of the noise exposure. Day-night level (DNL) and day-evening-night level (DENL) were used as noise descriptors. Because the entire annoyace distribution has been modeled, any annoyance measure that summarizes this distribution can be calculated from the...
article 2001
document
Alferdinck, J.W.A.M. (author), TNO Defensie en Veiligheid (author)
During night-time driving hazardous objects often appear at mesopic light levels, which are typically measured using light meters with a spectral sensitivity that is only valid for photopic light levels. In order to develop suitable mesopic models a target detection experiment was performed in a driving simulator. While subjects drove along a...
article 2006
document
de Vries, S.I. (author), Bakker, I. (author), van Mechelen, W. (author), Hopman-Rock, M. (author), TNO Kwaliteit van Leven (author)
Purpose. To examine the association between children's physical activity and factors of the built environment. Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting. Ten neighborhoods in six cities in the Netherlands. Subjects. Four hundred twenty-two children (age range, 6-11 years; 49% male). Measures. Physical activity diary, neighborhood observations, and...
article 2007
document
Smit, R. (author), Poelman, M. (author), Schrijver, J. (author), TNO Bouw en Ondergrond (author)
Does consideration of average speed distributions on roads-as compared to single mean speed-lead to different results in emission modelling of large road networks? To address this question, a post-processing method is developed to predict mean speed distributions using available traffic data from a dynamic macroscopic traffic model (Indy) that...
article 2008
document
Minguillón, M.C. (author), Cirach, M. (author), Hoek, G. (author), Brunekreef, B. (author), Tsai, M. (author), de Hoogh, K. (author), Jedynska, A. (author), Kooter, I.M. (author), Nieuwenhuijsen, M. (author), Querol, X. (author)
Trace and major elements concentrations in PM10 and PM2.5 were measured at 20 sites spread in the Barcelona metropolitan area (1 rural background, 6 urban background, 13 road traffic sites) and at 1 reference site. Three 2-week samples per site and size fraction were collected during 2009 using low volume samplers, adding a total of 120 samples....
article 2014
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