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document
de Amorim Soares, G. (author), Theelen, M.J. (author), Roosen, D. (author), Masolin, A. (author), Franssen, L. (author), Daenen, M. (author), Carolus, J. (author), Meuris, M. (author), Birrenbach, T. (author), Gerber, A. (author), Wrigley, A. (author)
conference paper 2017
document
van Deelen, J. (author), Frijters, C. (author)
We have investigated the benefit of a patterned metallization on top of a transparent conductive oxide in CIGS thin-film solar panels. It was found that cells with a grid have a higher efficiency compared to cells with only a TCO. This was observed for all cell lengths used. Furthermore, metallic grids enable increase of the cell length up to 10...
article 2017
document
Theelen, M. (author), de Amorim Soares, G. (author), Beyeler, K. (author), Steijvers, H. (author), Barreau, N. (author)
Unpackaged CIGS solar cells were simultaneously exposed to illumination and either dry heat, damp heat or dry cold followed by thermal cycling. In-situ monitoring of their electrical parameters demonstrated a rapid decrease of the efficiency for the solar cells exposed to damp heat plus illumination. This decrease was mainly driven by changes in...
conference paper 2017
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Theelen, M. (author), Hendrikx, R. (author), Barreau, N. (author), Steijvers, H. (author), Böttger, A. (author)
Unencapsulated CIGS solar cells were simultaneously exposed to damp heat and illumination. In-situ monitoring of their electrical parameters demonstrated a rapid decrease of the efficiency, mainly driven by changes in the series and shunt resistances. The non-degraded and degraded solar cells were studied by SIMS and XRD to investigate the...
article 2016
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Flammini, M.G. (author), Debernardi, N. (author), Le Ster, M. (author), Bakker, K. (author), Dunne, B. (author), Bosman, J. (author), Theelen, M. (author)
Non-encapsulated CIGSSe solar cells, with a silver grid, were exposed to different temperatures for various periods in order to measure the effect of the heat exposure in CIGSSe modules. The heat treatment time and temperature were varied during the experiments, which were executed at atmospheric conditions. In all the cases, after reaching a...
conference paper 2016
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Theelen, M. (author), Steijvers, H. (author), Bakker, K. (author), Vink, J. (author), Mortazavi, S. (author), Mulder, A. (author), Barreau, N. (author), Roosen, D. (author), Haverkamp, E. (author)
Two hybrid degradation setups, allowing exposure of solar cells and modules to elevated temperatures and humidity as well as illumination have been built. CIGS solar cells were placed in the degradation setups, allowing real time monitoring of their electrical properties. Under open circuit conditions, the efficiency of alkali-rich CIGS solar...
conference paper 2016
document
Theelen, M. (author), de Graaf, F. (author), Daume, F. (author), Barreau, N. (author), Vroon, Z. (author), Zeman, M. (author)
Degradation rates and mechanisms for molybdenum back contacts and ZnO:Al front contacts exposed to damp heat were obtained from literature and experiments. It was found that molybdenum back contacts with a higher density and covered by a MoSe2 film are more stable than their low density, bare counterparts. For ZnO:Al front contacts, various...
conference paper 2016
document
Williams, B.L. (author), Zardetto, V. (author), Kniknie, B. (author), Verheijen, M.A. (author), Kessels, W.M.M. (author), Creatore, M. (author)
The electrical role of the highly resistive and transparent (HRT) i-ZnO layer in Cu(In, Ga)Se2(CIGS) solar cells is investigated. By tuning the resistivity of atomic layer deposited (ALD) i-ZnO through the use of post-growth O2-plasma treatments, it is shown that low i-ZnO carrier densities (i.e. high resistivities) actually restrict the...
article 2016
document
Theelen, M. (author), Daume, F. (author)
As Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) photovoltaic (PV) technology matures to production on an industrial scale, its long-term stability becomes increasingly important: The electric yield and thus the revenue of a PV system depend on both the initial conversion efficiency as well as its development over time. Increasing this long-term stability by...
article 2016
document
Theelen, M. (author), Barreau, N. (author), Hans, V. (author), Steijvers, H. (author), Vroon, Z. (author), Zeman, M. (author)
Non-encapsulated CIGS solar cells with different contents of sodium (Na) and potassium (K) were simultaneously exposed to damp heat and illumination. The solar cells with higher alkali (Na, K) content exhibited higher initial conversion efficiencies, but degraded severely within 100 hours, while samples with a lower alkali content retained their...
conference paper 2015
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Williams, B.L. (author), Smit, S. (author), Kniknie, B.J. (author), Bakker, K.J. (author), Keuning, W. (author), Kessels, W.M.M. (author), Schropp, R.E.I. (author), Creatore, M. (author)
An equivalent circuit model, which allows for the presence of three types of shunting pathways, has been developed to describe the dark J-V characteristics in CIGS solar cells. Excellent agreement between the model and experimental data was apparent throughout a temperature range of 183-323K. Voltage-independent ideality factors may be extracted...
article 2015
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Theelen, M. (author), Harel, S. (author), Verschuren, M. (author), Tomassini, M. (author), Hovestad, A. (author), Barreau, N. (author), van Berkum, J. (author), Vroon, Z. (author), Zeman, M. (author)
The degradation behavior of Mo/MoSe2 layers have been investigated using damp heat exposure. The two studied molybdenum based films with different densities and microstructures were obtained by lifting off Cu(In,Ga)Se2 layers froma bilayer molybdenum stack on soda lime glass. Hereby, a glass/Mo/MoSe2 was obtained, which resembles the back...
conference paper 2015
document
Hovestad, A. (author), Bressers, P.M.M.C. (author), Meertens, R.M. (author), Frijters, C.H. (author), Voorthuijzen, W.P. (author)
High yield and reproducible production is a major challenge in up-scaling thin film Cu(In,Ga)Se2(CIGS) solar cells to large area roll-to-roll industrial manufacturing. Pinholes enabling Ohmic contact between the ZnO:Al front-contact and Mo back contact of the CIGS cell create electrical shunts that are detrimental to the output of the cell and...
article 2015
document
Theelen, M. (author), Steijvers, H. (author), Barreau, N. (author), Buffiere, M. (author), Brammertz, G. (author), Flammini, M.G. (author), van Vugt, R.J. (author), Vroon, Z. (author), Zeman, M. (author)
A 'hybrid' degradation setup, which allows the use of humidity, temperature and illumination as loads in order to accelerate degradation of solar cells and modules, has been designed and constructed. In this setup, the current voltage output of photovoltaic samples is automatically logged and the electrical parameters are calculated. This allows...
conference paper 2015
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Theelen, M.J. (author), Barreau, N. (author), Daume, F. (author), Steijvers, H.L.A.H. (author), Hans, V.O. (author), Liakopoulou, A. (author), Vroon, Z.A.E.P. (author), Zeman, M. (author)
An hybrid degradation setup, in which humidity, temperature and illumination are used in order to accelerate degradation of CIGS, has been developed. This setup consists of a climate chamber, which can vary the temperature and humidity. Furthermore, an area of 80x80 cm2 is illuminated, which allows both the study of light induced behvaior and...
conference paper 2014
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Burghoorn, M.M.A. (author), Kniknie, B.J. (author), van Deelen, J. (author), Xu, M. (author), Vroon, Z.A.E.P. (author), van Ee, R.J. (author), van de Belt, R. (author), Buskens, P.J.P. (author)
Textured transparent conductors are widely used in thin-film silicon solar cells. They lower the reflectivity at interfaces between different layers in the cell and/or cause an increase in the path length of photons in the Si absorber layer, which both result in an increase in the number of absorbed photons and, consequently, an increase in...
article 2014
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van Deelen, J. (author), Kniknie, B. (author), Vroon, Z.A.E.P. (author), Wuerz, R. (author), Kessler, F. (author)
Reduction of CIGS layer thickness could translate in significant cost reduction. CIGS was made on transparent conductive oxide (TCO) to allow for optical characterization. This data was compared with external quantum efficiency (EQE) data. The results suggest that changes in surface morphology are an important aspect, which has to be taken into...
conference paper 2014
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Theelen, M.J. (author), Steijvers, H.L.A.H. (author), Vroon, Z.A.E.P. (author), Tomassini, M. (author), Barreau, N. (author), Zeman, M. (author)
conference paper 2012
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Theelen, M. (author), Tomassini, M. (author), Barreau, N. (author), Steijvers, H. (author), Branca, A. (author), Harel, S. (author), Vroon, Z. (author), Zeman, M. (author)
Molybdenum (Mo) degrades under the influence of damp heat, thereby reducing the output of CIGS PV. In this study, Mo layers were deposited on a glass substrate by magnetron sputtering, thereby varying the deposition pressure and the addition of selenium. These samples were thoroughly analysed and degraded at 60°C/60% relative humidity (RH) and...
conference paper 2012
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Rooms, H.C.A. (author), Barbu, I. (author), Vroon, Z.A.E.P. (author), Meertens, R. (author), Vermeulen, B. (author)
The acceptance of solar cells in the built environment is partly dependent on the appearance of the solar modules. One aspect in the appearance is color. In most cases a solar cell itself reflects either blue or no color and will appear blackish. For the blue solar cells it is possible to tune the antireflection layer in such a way that a...
conference paper 2011
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