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Lina, B.A.R. (author), Bos-Kuijpers, M.H.M. (author), Til, H.P. (author), Bär, A. (author)
The potential toxicity and carcinogenicity of erythritol, a low-calorie sugar substitute, were examined in Wistar Crl:(WI) WU BR rats. Groups of 50 rats of each sex consumed diets with 0, 2, 5, or 10% erythritol, or 10% mannitol, for a period of 104-107 weeks. To each of these main groups, two satellite groups of 20 males each were attached for...
article 1996
document
Horbach, G.J.M.J. (author), Princen, H.M.G. (author), van der Kroef, M. (author), van Bezooijen, C.F.A. (author), Yap, S.H. (author)
To investigate the regulation of age-related changes in albumin synthesis in the rat liver, total postnuclear RNA and polyribosomes, both membrane-bound and free, were prepared from livers of rats of different ages. By the use of a specific complementary DNA probe, the albumin mRNA sequence content was quantitated in these RNA fractions. These...
article 1984
document
Blum, R. (author), Kiy, T. (author), Waalkens-Berendsen, I. (author), Wong, A.W. (author), Roberts, A. (author), TNO Kwaliteit van Leven (author)
Polyunsaturated fatty acids, including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are natural constituents of the human diet. DHA-algal oil is produced through the use of the marine protist, Ulkenia sp. The reproductive toxicity of DHA-algal oil was assessed in a one-generation study. Rats were provided diets containing DHA-algal oil at concentrations of 1.5,...
article 2007
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Seifert, W.F. (author), Bosma, A. (author), Brouwer, A. (author), Hendriks, H.F.J. (author), Roholl, P.J.M. (author), van Leeuwen, R.E.W. (author), de Thiel van-Ruiter, G.C.F. (author), Seifert-Bock, I. (author), Knook, D.L. (author), TNO Preventie en Gezondheid (author)
Earlier studies have shown that retinoid administration suppresses the generation of hepatic fibrosis and stimulates its regression in normal (i.e., vitamin A-sufficient) carbon tetrachloride-treated rats. This study focuses on the possible role of a marginal or deficient vitamin A status on carbon tetrachloride-induced fibrosis. This...
article 1994
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Arts, J.H.E. (author), Dröge, S.C.M. (author), Bloksma, N. (author), Kuper, C.F. (author), Instituut CIVO-Toxicologie en Voeding TNO (author)
Five rat strains were compared for their performance in the local lymph node assay (LLNA) a promising test system for the identification of the skin-sensitizing potential of chemicals in the mouse. The contact sensitizer 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and the contact and respiratory sensitizer trimellitic anhydride (TMA) were used as model...
article 1996
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Soffers, A.E.M.F. (author), Ploemen, J.H.T.M. (author), Moonen, M.J.H. (author), Wobbes, T. (author), van Ommen, B. (author), Vervoort, J. (author), van Bladeren, P.J. (author), Rietjens, I.M.C.M. (author), Instituut CIVO-Toxicologie en Voeding TNO (author)
Quantitative structure - activity relationships (QSAR's) are described for the rate of conjugation of a series of fluoronitrobenzenes with cytosolic as well as with two major alpha and mu class enzymes of rat and human liver, viz., glutathione S-transferases (GST) 1-1, 3-3, A1-1, and M1a-1a. For all purified enzymes studied, the natural...
article 1996
document
Arts, J.H.E. (author), Schijf, M.A. (author), Kuper, C.F. (author), TNO Kwaliteit van Leven (author)
Irritant-induced inflammation of the airways may aggravate respiratory allergy induced by chemical respiratory allergens. Therefore, the effect of airway irritation by synthetic amorphous silica (SAS) on respiratory allergy to trimellitic anhydride (TMA) was studied. Brown Norway (BN) rats were topically sensitized on day 0 and on day 7,...
article 2008
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Feron, V.J. (author), Hendriksen, C.F.M. (author), Speek, A.J. (author), Til, H.P. (author), Spit, B.J. (author), Centraal Instituut voor Voedingsonderzoek TNO (author)
A lifespan oral toxicity of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) was carried out in Wistar rats, using five groups each of 60-80 males and 60-80 females. VCM was administered by incorporating polyvinyl chloride (PVC) powder with a high VCM content into the diet or by gastric intubation of a 10% VCM solution in soya-bean oil. The VCM doses (actual...
article 1981
document
Arts, J.H.E. (author), Muijser, H. (author), Appel, M.J. (author), Kuper, C.F. (author), Bessems, J.G.M. (author), Woutersen, R.A. (author), TNO Voeding (author)
The subacute oral and inhalation toxicity of furfural vapour was studied in Fischer 344 rats to investigate whether route-to-route extrapolation could be employed to derive the limit value for inhalation exposure from oral toxicity data. Groups of 5 rats per sex were treated by gavage daily for 28 days at dose levels of 6-192 mg/kg bw/day, or...
article 2004
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Kwekkeboom, J. (author), Princen, H.M.G. (author), van Voorthuizen, E.M. (author), Meijer, P. (author), Kempen, H.J.M. (author), Gaubius Instituut TNO (author)
Intracellular accumulation of 37°C of 50 μM [14C]taurocholic acid by hepatocytes of pig and rat, cultured for 24 hours, and by human hepatocytes, cultured for 12 hours, reached equilibrium after an incubation time of 1 to 2 hours. Maximum capacity to accumulate taurocholate intracellularly was assessed in 3-hour incubations with increasing...
article 1989
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Meihuizen, S.P. (author), Blansjaar, N. (author), Instituut voor experimentele gerontologie TNO (author)
Hepatocyte morphology of the three zones of the liver lobule was evaluated by stereological analysis in 3-month-old and 35-month-old virgin female WAG/Rij rats. In the old rats, the volume of the nucleus and cytoplasm, and volume densities of smooth endoplasmic reticulum and lysosomes were increased in all areas of the liver lobule, while the...
article 1980
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Turnbull, D. (author), Whittaker, M.H. (author), Frankos, V.H. (author), Jonker, D. (author), Centraal Instituut voor Voedingsonderzoek TNO (author)
Plant sterols and their saturated derivatives, known as stanols, reduce serum cholesterol when consumed in amounts of approximately 2 g per day. Stanol fatty acid esters have been developed as a highly fat-soluble form that may lower cholesterol more effectively than stanols. Stanol esters occur naturally in human diets, but at levels far below...
article 1999
document
Lina, B.A.R. (author), Bär, A. (author)
The toxicity of γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD), a cyclic polymer of eight α-1,4-linked glucopyranosyl units with potential applications as a food ingredient, was examined in a 2-week pilot study followed by a 13-week oral toxicity study in Wistar rats. In the 2-week study, the test substance was administered to groups of 5 male rats at dietary levels of...
article 1998
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Punt, A. (author), Freidig, A.P. (author), Delatour, T. (author), Scholz, G. (author), Boersma, M.G. (author), Schilter, B. (author), van Bladeren, P.J. (author), Rietjens, I.M.C.M. (author), TNO Kwaliteit van Leven (author)
The present study defines a physiologically based biokinetic (PBBK) model for the alkenylbenzene estragole in rat based on in vitro metabolic parameters determined using relevant tissue fractions, in silico derived partition coefficients, and physiological parameters derived from the literature. The model consists of eight compartments including...
article 2008
document
Sherratt, P.J. (author), Manson, M.M. (author), Thomson, A.M. (author), Hissink, E.A.M. (author), Neal, G.E. (author), van Bladeren, P.J. (author), Green, T. (author), Hayes, J.D. (author), Centraal Instituut voor Voedingsonderzoek TNO (author)
A characteristic feature of the class Theta glutathione S-transferase (GST) T1-1 is its ability to activate dichloromethane and dibromoethane by catalysing the formation of mutagenic conjugates. The level of the GSTT1 subunit within tissues is an important determinant of susceptibility to the carcinogenic effects of these dihaloalkanes. In the...
article 1998
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Knook, D.L. (author), Instituut voor experimentele gerontologie TNO (author)
Highly purified suspensions of parenchymal, endothelial and Kupffer cells were prepared from the rat liver. The respective roles of these cell classes in the degradation of proteins was investigated by analysing the cellular distribution of two lysomal proteases. The specific arginine naphthylamidase activity was 2 times higher in Kupffer cells...
article 1977
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Centraal Instituut voor Voedingsonderzoek TNO (author), Janbroers, J.M. (author), Sanders, J.C. (author), Til, H.P. (author), Feron, V.J. (author), de Groot, A.P., (author)
A new oral cholecystographic medium called iocetamicacid was submitted to a toxicologic study in rats and dogs. Dosages, which were equivalent to 200 and 1000 mg of the compound per kilogram of body weight per day and were 5 times and 25 times the human routine dose, were administered daily for 3 weeks in order to establish whether the substance...
article 1969
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Hempenius, R.A. (author), Lina, B.A.R. (author), Haggitt, R.C. (author)
Arachidonic acid oil (ARA-oil) derived from the fungus Mortierella alpina for use in infant nutrition was tested in a subchronic (13-week) oral toxicity study in rats, preceded by an in utero exposure phase. The ARA-oil was administered as admixture to the rodent diet at dose levels of 3000 ppm, 15,000 ppm and 75,000 ppm. An additional high-dose...
article 2000
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Woutersen, R.A. (author), Jonker, D. (author), Stevenson, H. (author), te Biesebeek, J.D. (author), Slob, W. (author), Instituut CIVO-Toxicologie en Voeding TNO (author)
The OECD study design, aimed at obtaining a no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL), may be suboptimal for deriving a benchmark dose. Therefore the present subacute (28-day) study was carried out to evaluate a multiple dose study design and to compare the results with the common OECD design. Seven groups of 10 female rats each were...
article 2001
document
Radiobiologisch Instituut TNO (author), Sonneveld, P. (author), van Bekkum, D.W. (author)
Adriamycin (ADR) accumulates in well-perfused organs in the rat. This effect is especially evident for long periods in marrow and spleen of healthy animals. In rats bearing the Brown Norway Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (BNML) the in vitro distribution is significantly different. Maximum ADR levels in those organs which are morphologically infiltrated...
article 1981
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