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Bouma, R.H.B. (author), Griffiths, T.T. (author), Tuukkanen, I.M. (author)
To ensure safety and reliability, it is important that the explosives and other materials used in munitions do not interact adversely either physically or chemically. Data obtained by heat flow calorimetry on nitrocellulose-based propellants have been reviewed with the aim of identifying improved chemical compatibility assessment criteria. It...
article 2019
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Scholtes, J.H.G. (author)
For fragment impact and sympathetic reaction calculations, a variety of empirical and simple 1D-shock models have been developed. Some of these, like the Walker-Wasley or the Cook-Haskins-James model, use a simple critical energy criterion. The empirical Jacobs-Roslund model has a large database and is well-known in the explosive community for...
conference paper 2019
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Verolme, E.K. (author), van der Voort, M.M. (author), Smits, R. (author), Weerheijm, J. (author), Koh, Y.H. (author), Kang, K.W. (author)
There is limited knowledge on deriving the strength of an explosion based on the observed explosion effects. Existing methods are based primarily on the effects of blast overpressure on surrounding structures. Window breakage and structural damage are well studied and are widely used to derive most probable explosion strengths. Other explosive...
article 2018
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van Hulst, M. (author), Langenberg, J.P. (author), de Klerk, W.P.C. (author), Alblas, M.J. (author)
The toxicity of smoke-generating ammunition can be established by looking at the complete hand grenade or only at the smoke composition. In this paper both approaches are described. The toxicity of a signalling smoke was assessed as a complete smoke hand grenade whereas for a 76 mm screening smoke canister only a red phosphorus (RP) pellet was...
article 2017
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van Driel, C.A. (author), Straathof, M.H. (author), van Lingen, J.N.J. (author)
Since common energetic materials are not easily compatible with existing additive manufacturing techniques, the Energetic Materials department of TNO in the Netherlands worked closely together with the Additive Manufacturing and Material Solutions groups of TNO to develop new types of energetic material that can be processed in standard 3D...
conference paper 2017
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van den Elshout, J.J.M.H. (author), Duvalois, W. (author), Di Benedetto, G.L. (author), Bouma, R.H.B. (author), van der Heijden, A.E.D.M. (author)
A key-technique for the research of energetic materials is scanning electron microscopy. In this paper several examples are given of characterization studies on energetic materials, including a solid composite propellant formulation. Results of the characterization of energetic materials using scanning electron microscopy comprise the...
conference paper 2016
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van der Heijden, A.E.D.M. (author), Bouma, R.H.B. (author)
The influence of an explosion-driven deformation on the defect structure in RDX crystals embedded in a polymer-bonded explosive was investigated by means of confocal scanning laser microscopy. The images were compared to the defect structure in the as-received RDX grades, embedded
article 2016
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van der Voort, M.M. (author), Holm, K.B. (author), Kummer, P.O. (author), Teland, J.A. (author), van Doormaal, J.C.A.M. (author), Dijkers, H.P.A. (author)
An important blast injury mechanism is the rupture of the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract. In explosives safety studies and threat analysis the empirical model of Bowen is often used to quantify this mechanism. The original model predicts the lethality for a person in front of a reflecting surface caused by simple Friedlander blast waves....
article 2016
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Bezemer, K.D.B. (author), Koeberg, M. (author), van der Heijden, A.E.D.M. (author), van Driel, C.A. (author), Blaga, C. (author), Bruinsma, J. (author), van Asten, A.C. (author)
Studying links between triacetone triperoxide (TATP) samples from crime scenes and suspects can assist in criminal investigations. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and gas chromatography (GC)-IRMS were used to measure the isotopic compositions of TATP and its precursors acetone and hydrogen peroxide. In total, 31 TATP samples were...
article 2016
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Ferretti, D.L. (author)
report 2016
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Bouma, R.H.B. (author), van der Heijden, A.E.D.M. (author)
An explosive composition, derived from AFX-757, was systematically varied by using three different qualities of Class I RDX. The effect of internal defect structure of the RDX crystal on the shock sensitivity of a polymer bonded explosive is generally accepted (Doherty and Watt, 2008). Here the response to a mechanical non-shock stimulus is...
article 2016
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van der Heijden, A.E.D.M. (author), Bouma, R.H.B. (author)
In an attempt to further contribute to the characterization of explosive compositions, small scale Floret tests were performed using four RDX grades, differing in product quality. A Floret test provides a measure – by indentation of a copper block – of detonation spreading or the initiability and shock wave divergence and is applied in...
article 2016
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de Klerk, W.P.C. (author)
conference paper 2015
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Hooijmeijer, P.A. (author), de Klerk, W.P.C. (author), Scholtes, J.H.G. (author), Smit, C.S. (author)
In the last two years a MoD funded project was performed by TNO in The Netherlands to include munition vulnerability in the Vulnerability/Lethality (V/L) studies on military platforms. This effort has resulted in an initial successful combination of two knowledge domains. In this paper two case studies (a naval and a land study) will be...
conference paper 2015
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Kroon, E.J. (author), van Ham, N.H.A. (author), Bouma, R.H.B. (author)
This report provides an inventory of the pistols and fuzes found in Dutch soil. The numbers are based on a PLANON digital database query, a questionnaire to (former) EOD personnel and a database search for bombardments on cities and airfields. The anticipated sensitivity to vibrations is given. Ageing of the energetic materials and mechanical...
report 2015
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Scholtes, J.H.G. (author), Hooijmeijer, P.A. (author)
A former study was dedicated to relating basic Insensitive Munitions behaviour to an operational context. At TNO, a toolbox with a series of engineering tools has been developed, but improvements are added on a regular bases. These tools focus on the mechanisms that occur in munition articles exposed to a range of IM-related threats (bullet,...
conference paper 2015
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van Hulst, M. (author)
For training and education of law enforcement and military personnel the use of realistic ammunition and their actual weapons is important. During these training and educational sessions the trainers as well as the shooters themselves are exposed to the products emitted by firing the ammunition. The legislation regarding occupational safety and...
conference paper 2015
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van der Voort, M.M. (author), van Wees, R.M.M. (author), Brouwer, S.D. (author), van der Jagt-Deutekom, M.J. (author), Verreault, J. (author)
Forensic analysis of explosions consists of determining the point of origin, the explosive substance involved, and the charge mass. Within the EU FP7 project Hyperion, TNO developed the Inverse Explosion Analysis (TNO-IEA) tool to estimate the charge mass and point of origin based on observed damage around an explosion. In this paper inverse...
conference paper 2015
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di Benedetto, G.L. (author), van Ramshorst, M.C.J. (author), Duvalois, W. (author), Hooijmeijer, P.A. (author), van der Heijden, A.E.D.M. (author), de Klerk, W.P.C. (author)
A tensile module system placed within a FEI NovaNanoSEM 650 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was utilized in this work to conduct in-situ tensile testing of propellant material samples. This tensile module system allows for real-time in-situ SEM analysis of the samples to determine the failure mechanism of the propellant material under tensile...
conference paper 2015
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de Klerk, W.P.C. (author)
The surveillance of gun propellants is basically performed either by an investigation into the thermal behavior of the propellant or by the determination of its remaining effective stabilizer content. Over the years it is shown that the surveillance of NC based gun propellants is necessary. NC based materials are intrinsically unstable, and can...
article 2015
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