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de Dominicis, L. (author), Bouma, H. (author), Toivonen, S. (author), Stifini, C. (author), Villani, M.L. (author), de Nicola, A. (author), van Rooijen, A.L. (author), Baan, J. (author), Peltola, J. (author), Lämsä, A. (author), Räsänen, P. (author)
conference paper 2021
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Space Propulsion and Custom Energetics (SPaCE) is a product team within TNO’s Energetic Materials department. The multidisciplinary SPaCE team is specialized in innovative space propulsion and pyrotechnic product development and testing. It has all the necessary resources and qualifications to assist governments and companies in the aerospace...
other 2021
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Zebregs, M. (author), Mayer, A.E.H.J. (author), van der Heijden, A.E.D.M. (author)
In this comparative study, a solid composite, AN/HTPB-based propellant was prepared by conventional processing in a mechanical mixer and by applying an advanced processing technique relying on resonant acoustic mixing (RAM). After curing of the propellants, cross-sections were prepared and characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Also the...
article 2020
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Bezemer, K. (author), McLennan, L. (author), van Duin, L. (author), Kuijpers, C.J. (author), Koeberg, M. (author), van den Elshout, J.J.M.H. (author), van der Heijden, A.E.D.M. (author), Busby, T. (author), Yevdokimov, A. (author), Schoenmakers, P. (author), Smith, J. (author), Oxley, J. (author), van Asten, A. (author)
Erythritol tetranitrate (ETN) was prepared independently by two research groups from the USA and the Netherlands. The partially nitrated impurities present in ETN were studied using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to address the ultimate challenge in forensic explosives investigations, i.e., providing chemical and tactical information on...
article 2020
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Bezemer, K. (author), McLennan, L. (author), Hessels, R. (author), Schoorl, J. (author), van den Elshout, J.J.M.H. (author), van der Heijden, A.E.D.M. (author), Hulsbergen, A. (author), Koeberg, M. (author), Busby, T. (author), Yevdokimov, A. (author), Rijke, E. (author), Schoenmakers, P. (author), Smith, J. (author), Oxley, J. (author), van Asten, A. (author)
In this follow-up study the collaboration between two research groups from the USA and the Netherlands was continued to expand the framework of chemical attribution for the homemade explosive erythritol tetranitrate (ETN). Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) analysis was performed to predict possible links between ETN samples and its...
article 2020
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Bouma, R.H.B. (author), Griffiths, T.T. (author), Tuukkanen, I.M. (author)
To ensure safety and reliability, it is important that the explosives and other materials used in munitions do not interact adversely either physically or chemically. Data obtained by heat flow calorimetry on nitrocellulose-based propellants have been reviewed with the aim of identifying improved chemical compatibility assessment criteria. It...
article 2019
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van de Wouw, D.W.J.M. (author), ter Haar, F.B. (author), Dubbelman, G. (author), de With, P.H.N. (author)
We propose a real-time change detection system to be used as a vehicle-mounted early-warning system for indicators of improvised explosive devices. Within the context of military route clearance, the system automatically detects suspicious changes in the environment with respect to a previous patrol. For this purpose, historical images of the...
article 2019
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Straathof, M.H. (author), van Driel, C.A. (author), den Otter, J.H. (author), van Lingen, J.N.J. (author), Heinsius1, J. (author), Isenia, J. (author), Rijnders, B. (author)
In recent years, the amount of research being performed in the field of additive manufacturing of energetic materials has increased tremendously. Many institutions across the globe are developing new materials and techniques for 3D-printing of propellants, thermites, explosives, etc. Groven and Metzger [1] provide an excellent overview of recent...
conference paper 2019
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Scholtes, J.H.G. (author)
For fragment impact and sympathetic reaction calculations, a variety of empirical and simple 1D-shock models have been developed. Some of these, like the Walker-Wasley or the Cook-Haskins-James model, use a simple critical energy criterion. The empirical Jacobs-Roslund model has a large database and is well-known in the explosive community for...
conference paper 2019
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Ciammaruchi, L. (author), Oliveira, R. (author), Charas, A. (author), von Hauff, E. (author), Polino, G. (author), Brunetti, F. (author), Hansson, R. (author), Moons, E. (author), Krassas, M. (author), Kakavelakis, G. (author), Kymakis, E. (author), Sánchez, J.G. (author), Ferre-Borrull, J. (author), Marsal, L.F. (author), Züfle, S. (author), Fluhr, D. (author), Roesch, R. (author), Faber, T. (author), Schubert, U.S. (author), Hoppe, H. (author), Bakker, N.J. (author), Veenstra, S.C. (author), Zanotti, G. (author), Katz, E.A. (author), Apilo, P. (author), Romero, B. (author), Tumay, T.A. (author), Parlak, E. (author), Stagno, L.M. (author), Turkovic, V. (author), Rubahn, H.G. (author), Madsen, M. (author), Kažukauskas, V. (author), Tanenbaum, D.M. (author), Shanmugam, S. (author), Galagan, Y. (author)
This work is part of the interlaboratory collaboration to study the stability of organic solar cells containing PCDTBT polymer as a donor material. The varieties of the OPV devices with different device architectures, electrode materials, encapsulation, and device dimensions were prepared by seven research laboratories. Sets of identical devices...
article 2018
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van 't Hof, C. (author), van Erkel, A.G. (author), Pape, G. (author)
An analytical model is developed for analysis of the dynamic elastic-plastic response of structural stiffened panels (e.g. bulkheads) due to blast. The model accounts for pinned boundaries and panel aspect ratios in the range of 1 – 5. Both the short span and long span deflection shapes are accounted for, as well as stiffeners in both directions...
conference paper 2018
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Longbottom, A. (author), Verreault, J. (author), Cargill, S. (author), Milne, A. (author)
Many explosives are fuel rich and on detonation produce excess hydrocarbon species that may subsequently burn with oxygen in the surrounding air. This process is known as afterburning and takes place on relatively long timescales compared to detonation. An example is TNT which releases more than twice as much energy from afterburning as it does...
conference paper 2018
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Verolme, E.K. (author), van der Voort, M.M. (author), Smits, R. (author), Weerheijm, J. (author), Koh, Y.H. (author), Kang, K.W. (author)
There is limited knowledge on deriving the strength of an explosion based on the observed explosion effects. Existing methods are based primarily on the effects of blast overpressure on surrounding structures. Window breakage and structural damage are well studied and are widely used to derive most probable explosion strengths. Other explosive...
article 2018
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van Hulst, M. (author), Langenberg, J.P. (author), de Klerk, W.P.C. (author), Alblas, M.J. (author)
The toxicity of smoke-generating ammunition can be established by looking at the complete hand grenade or only at the smoke composition. In this paper both approaches are described. The toxicity of a signalling smoke was assessed as a complete smoke hand grenade whereas for a 76 mm screening smoke canister only a red phosphorus (RP) pellet was...
article 2017
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van Driel, C.A. (author), de Klerk, W.P.C. (author)
Conventional gun propellants exhibit the phenomenon of nitrocellulose (NC) decomposition. Besides an effect on thermal stability of propellants, decomposition of NC has an effect on the mechanical integrity of the propellant grains. Enhanced grain fracture may lead to unacceptable changes of the pressure build-up. The effect of ageing on NC...
conference paper 2017
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van Driel, C.A. (author), Straathof, M.H. (author), van Lingen, J.N.J. (author)
Since common energetic materials are not easily compatible with existing additive manufacturing techniques, the Energetic Materials department of TNO in the Netherlands worked closely together with the Additive Manufacturing and Material Solutions groups of TNO to develop new types of energetic material that can be processed in standard 3D...
conference paper 2017
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van den Elshout, J.J.M.H. (author), Duvalois, W. (author), Di Benedetto, G.L. (author), Bouma, R.H.B. (author), van der Heijden, A.E.D.M. (author)
A key-technique for the research of energetic materials is scanning electron microscopy. In this paper several examples are given of characterization studies on energetic materials, including a solid composite propellant formulation. Results of the characterization of energetic materials using scanning electron microscopy comprise the...
conference paper 2016
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van der Heijden, A.E.D.M. (author), Bouma, R.H.B. (author)
The influence of an explosion-driven deformation on the defect structure in RDX crystals embedded in a polymer-bonded explosive was investigated by means of confocal scanning laser microscopy. The images were compared to the defect structure in the as-received RDX grades, embedded
article 2016
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van der Voort, M.M. (author), Holm, K.B. (author), Kummer, P.O. (author), Teland, J.A. (author), van Doormaal, J.C.A.M. (author), Dijkers, H.P.A. (author)
An important blast injury mechanism is the rupture of the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract. In explosives safety studies and threat analysis the empirical model of Bowen is often used to quantify this mechanism. The original model predicts the lethality for a person in front of a reflecting surface caused by simple Friedlander blast waves....
article 2016
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Bezemer, K.D.B. (author), Koeberg, M. (author), van der Heijden, A.E.D.M. (author), van Driel, C.A. (author), Blaga, C. (author), Bruinsma, J. (author), van Asten, A.C. (author)
Studying links between triacetone triperoxide (TATP) samples from crime scenes and suspects can assist in criminal investigations. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and gas chromatography (GC)-IRMS were used to measure the isotopic compositions of TATP and its precursors acetone and hydrogen peroxide. In total, 31 TATP samples were...
article 2016
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