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de Amorim Soares, G. (author), Carolus, J. (author), Daenen, M. (author), Masolin, A. (author), Birrenbach, T. (author), Gerber, A. (author), Wrigley, A. (author), Henzel, J. (author), Roosen, D. (author), Meuris, M. (author), Theelen, M.J. (author)
A round robin test was carried out in four PV laboratories to compare accelerated lifetime testing. Twenty commercial non-packaged CIGS solar cells of similar performance were spread and exposed to damp heat con-ditions (85 ◦C and 85% RH) for approximately 500 h. Their JV performance was monitored during the damp heat exposure. After the test,...
article 2021
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De Biasio, M. (author), Zikulnig, J. (author), Muehleisen, W. (author), Kraft, M. (author), Simor, M. (author), Bolt, P.J. (author)
Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS) thin-film solar cells are a promising technology, but inline quality inspection systems are required for efficient high-volume production. Tests with two candidate methods: Raman spectroscopy and photo-luminescence imaging, are reported in this paper. The methods were used to estimate material compositions...
conference paper 2021
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Grau-Luque, E. (author), Guc, M. (author), Becerril-Romero, I. (author), Izqueierdo-Roca, V. (author), Perez-Rodriguez, A. (author), Bolt, P. (author), van den Bruele, F.J. (author), Ruhle, U. (author)
Flexible photovoltaic (PV) devices, such as those based on Cu (In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and perovskites, use polymeric front sheets for encapsulation that do not provide sufficient protection against the environment. The addition of nanometric AlxO layers by spatial atomic layer deposition (S-ALD) to these polymeric materials can highly improve...
article 2021
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Bakker, K. (author), Aahman, H.N. (author), Burgers, T. (author), Barreau, N. (author), Weeber, A. (author), Theelen, M. (author)
Partial shading of monolithically interconnected Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) modules can lead to the formation of reverse bias induced defects. These localized defects permanently reduce the output of the PV module. The formation and propagation mechanisms of these defects is studied. Understanding these mechanisms can help to prevent or mitigate...
article 2020
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Aninat, R. (author), van den Bruele, F.J. (author), Tinnemans, P. (author), Schermer, J.J. (author), Emmelkamp, J. (author), Vlieg, E. (author), Theelen, M. (author), van der Vleuten, M. (author), Linden, H. (author)
A custom-made, highly versatile and industrially-relevant selenisation furnace with in situ XRD capabilities is presented. Mimicking an RD scale furnace used in our baseline at TNO/Solliance, it uses only elemental chalcogens and gives control over a wide set of process parameters not accessible in commercial setups. It additionally allows fast...
conference paper 2020
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van der Vleuten, M. (author), Theelen, M. (author), Aninat, R. (author), van der Werf, K. (author), Mannetje, H. (author), Reyes-Figueroa, P. (author), Kodalle, T. (author), Klenk, R. (author), Simor, M. (author), Linden, H. (author)
In order to control the bandgap profile of CIGSe absorbers, several key parameters of the absorber formation process have been investigated using semi-industrial 30×30 cm2 chalcogenization equipment. It was found that the degree of gallium-indium interdiffusion depends on the thermal budget of the process and on the selenium vapor pressure at...
conference paper 2020
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Bakker, K. (author), Rasia, A. (author), Assen, S. (author), Ben Said Aflouat, B. (author), Weeber, A. (author), Weeber, A. (author), Theelen, M. (author)
When a PV module is partially shaded, the shaded solar cells operate in a reverse bias condition. For Cu(In,Ga)Se2 cells this condition can cause defects that irreversibly reduce the output of these cells and the full module. In order to design robust shade-tolerant CIGS modules details need to be known of the conditions at which these defects...
article 2020
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Valckenborg, R.M.E. (author), van Aken, B.B. (author)
The principle PV module product rating instrument is the DC power at Standard Test Conditions (STC). For a full year energy prediction, additional performance parameters (e.g. NOCT) have been introduced but have left room for improvement. The newly IEC 61853 norm defines a Pmpp-matrix with 7 settings of GPOA and 4 settings of Tmod, which enables...
conference paper 2019
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Theelen, M. (author), Bakker, K. (author), Steijvers, H. (author), Roest, S. (author), Hielkema, P. (author), Barreau, N. (author), Haverkamp, E. (author)
The levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of photovoltaic (PV) systems is determined by, among other factors, the PV module reliability. Better prediction of degradation mechanisms and prevention of module field failure can consequently decrease investment risks as well as increase the electricity yield. An improved knowledge level can for these...
article 2018
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Theelen, M.J. (author), de Graaf, F. (author), Daume, F. (author), Barreau, N. (author), Vroon, Z.A.E.P. (author), Zeman, M. (author)
Degradation rates and mechanisms for molybdenum back contacts and ZnO:Al front contacts exposed to damp heat were obtained from literature and experiments. It was found that molybdenum back contacts with a higher density and covered by a MoSe2 film are more stable than their low density, bare counterparts. For ZnO:Al front contacts various...
conference paper 2018
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Valckenborg, R.M.E. (author), Sasidharan, S. (author), Tzikas, C. (author), Santbergen, R. (author), van de Wall, W. (author), Folkerts, W. (author)
Choosing the most suitable PV technology for a ZigZag-structured façade cannot be based on one aspect, but involves four important aspects. First, a maximal energy density (Wp/m2 panel) of the PV-panel itself is preferred. Secondly, the amount of irradiance from the reflective panels onto the PV-panels should be maximized. However that could...
conference paper 2018
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Blanker, A.J. (author), Berendsen, P. (author), Phung, N. (author), Vroon, Z.E.A.P. (author), Zeman, M. (author), Smets, A.H.M. (author)
Multi-junction solar cells are considered for various applications, as they tackle various loss mechanisms for single junction solar cells. These losses include thermalization and non-absorption below the band gap. In this work, a tandem configuration comprising copper-indium-gallium-di-selenide (CIGS) and hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H)...
article 2018
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de Amorim Soares, G. (author), Theelen, M.J. (author), Roosen, D. (author), Masolin, A. (author), Franssen, L. (author), Daenen, M. (author), Carolus, J. (author), Meuris, M. (author), Birrenbach, T. (author), Gerber, A. (author), Wrigley, A. (author)
conference paper 2017
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van Deelen, J. (author), Frijters, C. (author)
We have investigated the benefit of a patterned metallization on top of a transparent conductive oxide in CIGS thin-film solar panels. It was found that cells with a grid have a higher efficiency compared to cells with only a TCO. This was observed for all cell lengths used. Furthermore, metallic grids enable increase of the cell length up to 10...
article 2017
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Theelen, M. (author), de Amorim Soares, G. (author), Beyeler, K. (author), Steijvers, H. (author), Barreau, N. (author)
Unpackaged CIGS solar cells were simultaneously exposed to illumination and either dry heat, damp heat or dry cold followed by thermal cycling. In-situ monitoring of their electrical parameters demonstrated a rapid decrease of the efficiency for the solar cells exposed to damp heat plus illumination. This decrease was mainly driven by changes in...
conference paper 2017
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Theelen, M. (author), Hendrikx, R. (author), Barreau, N. (author), Steijvers, H. (author), Böttger, A. (author)
Unencapsulated CIGS solar cells were simultaneously exposed to damp heat and illumination. In-situ monitoring of their electrical parameters demonstrated a rapid decrease of the efficiency, mainly driven by changes in the series and shunt resistances. The non-degraded and degraded solar cells were studied by SIMS and XRD to investigate the...
article 2016
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Flammini, M.G. (author), Debernardi, N. (author), Le Ster, M. (author), Bakker, K. (author), Dunne, B. (author), Bosman, J. (author), Theelen, M. (author)
Non-encapsulated CIGSSe solar cells, with a silver grid, were exposed to different temperatures for various periods in order to measure the effect of the heat exposure in CIGSSe modules. The heat treatment time and temperature were varied during the experiments, which were executed at atmospheric conditions. In all the cases, after reaching a...
conference paper 2016
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Theelen, M. (author), Steijvers, H. (author), Bakker, K. (author), Vink, J. (author), Mortazavi, S. (author), Mulder, A. (author), Barreau, N. (author), Roosen, D. (author), Haverkamp, E. (author)
Two hybrid degradation setups, allowing exposure of solar cells and modules to elevated temperatures and humidity as well as illumination have been built. CIGS solar cells were placed in the degradation setups, allowing real time monitoring of their electrical properties. Under open circuit conditions, the efficiency of alkali-rich CIGS solar...
conference paper 2016
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Theelen, M. (author), de Graaf, F. (author), Daume, F. (author), Barreau, N. (author), Vroon, Z. (author), Zeman, M. (author)
Degradation rates and mechanisms for molybdenum back contacts and ZnO:Al front contacts exposed to damp heat were obtained from literature and experiments. It was found that molybdenum back contacts with a higher density and covered by a MoSe2 film are more stable than their low density, bare counterparts. For ZnO:Al front contacts, various...
conference paper 2016
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Williams, B.L. (author), Zardetto, V. (author), Kniknie, B. (author), Verheijen, M.A. (author), Kessels, W.M.M. (author), Creatore, M. (author)
The electrical role of the highly resistive and transparent (HRT) i-ZnO layer in Cu(In, Ga)Se2(CIGS) solar cells is investigated. By tuning the resistivity of atomic layer deposited (ALD) i-ZnO through the use of post-growth O2-plasma treatments, it is shown that low i-ZnO carrier densities (i.e. high resistivities) actually restrict the...
article 2016
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