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Schaap, M. (author), Rodink, R. (author), Weijers, E. (author), de Gier, C. (author), TNO Bouw en Ondergrond (author)
article 2010
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Schaap, J.E. (author), Kim, J.C. (author), Centraal Instituut voor Voedingsonderzoek TNO Instituut voor Graan Meel en Brood TNO (author)
article 1979
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Weijers, E.P. (author), Schaap, M. (author), Nguyen, L. (author), Matthijsen, J. (author), Denier Van Der Gon, H.A.C. (author), ten Brink, H.M. (author), Hoogerbrugge, R. (author)
To develop mitigation strategies for reducing concentrations of both PM<sub>2.5</sub> (and PM<sub>10</sub>), the origin of particulate matter (PM) needs to be established. An intensive, one-year measurement campaign from August 2007 to August 2008 was carried out to determine the composition of PM <sub>10</sub> and PM<sub>2.5</sub> at five...
article 2011
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Marecal, V. (author), Peuch, V.H. (author), Andersson, C. (author), Arteta, J. (author), Beckmann, M. (author), Benedictow, A. (author), Bergstrom, R. (author), Bessagnet, B. (author), Cansado, A. (author), Cheroux, F. (author), Colette, A. (author), Coman, A. (author), Curier, R.L. (author), Denier van der Gon, H.A.C. (author), Drouin, A. (author), Elbern, H. (author), Emili, E. (author), Engelen, R.J. (author), Eskes, H.J. (author), Foret, G. (author), Friese, E. (author), Gauss, M. (author), Giannaros, C. (author), Guth, J. (author), Joly, M. (author), Jaumouille, E. (author), Josse, B. (author), Kadygrov, N. (author), Kaiser, J.W. (author), Kjajsek, K. (author), Kuenen, J.J.P. (author), Kumar, U. (author), Liora, N. (author), Lopez, E. (author), Malherbe, L. (author), Martinez, L. (author), Melas, D. (author), Meleux, F. (author), Menut, L. (author), Moinat, P. (author), Morales, T. (author), Parmentier, J. (author), Piacentini, A. (author), Plu, M. (author), Poupkou, A. (author), Queguiner, S. (author), Robertson, L. (author), Rouil, L. (author), Schaap, M. (author), Segers, A.J. (author), Sofiev, M. (author), Tarasson, L. (author), Thomas, M. (author), Timmermans, R.M.A. (author), Valdebenito, A. (author), van Velthoven, P. (author), van Versendaal, R. (author), Vira, J. (author), Ung, A. (author)
This paper describes the pre-operational analysis and forecasting system developed during MACC (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate) and continued in the MACC-II (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate: Interim Implementation) European projects to provide air quality services for the European continent. This system is based on...
article 2015
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Schaap, H. (author), Witteveen, M. (author), van Iersel, J. (author), Schmitz, L. (author), Groosman, M. (author), TNO Bouw (author)
Met 36 miljoen aangesloten computers en 170 miljoen gebruikers groeit Internet zo snel dat het bijna uit zijn voegen barst. Een van de sectoren die Internet heeft ontdekt is de bouwkolom. Het net-werk kan helpen om samenwerking en communicatie in de bouw te verbeteren, is de stellige overtuiging van iedere ICT-er in de bouw. Maar vooralsnog komt...
article 1999
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Zenone, T. (author), Hendriks, C. (author), Brilli, F. (author), Fransen, E. (author), Gioli, B. (author), Portillo-Estrada, M. (author), Schaap, M. (author), Ceulemans, R. (author)
The emission of isoprene and other biogenic volatile organic compounds from vegetation plays an important role in tropospheric ozone (O3) formation. The potentially large expansion of isoprene emitting species (e.g., poplars) for bioenergy production might, therefore, impact tropospheric O3 formation. Using the eddy covariance technique we have...
article 2016
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Timmermans, R.M.A. (author), Denier van der Gon, H.A.C. (author), Kuenen, J.J.P. (author), Segers, A.J. (author), Honoré, C. (author), Perrussel, O. (author), Builtjes, P.J.H. (author), Schaap, M. (author)
The impact of large cities on air pollution levels usually is determined with models driven by so-called downscaled emission inventories. This implies that annual emissions of air pollutants at the national scale are spatially distributed over a grid using proxy data like population density. These inventories are frequently used for regional air...
article 2013
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Schaap, M. (author), Banzhaf, S. (author), Kranenburg, R. (author), Denier van der Gon, H.A.C. (author)
De uitstoot van SO2, NO en NH3 is niet even snel verminderd. Hierdoor is de atmosferische chemie verandert, waardoor concentraties van reactief stikstof en zwavelcomponenten niet een-op-een met de emissiereducties teruglopen.
article 2015
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Denby, B. (author), Schaap, M. (author), Segers, A.J. (author), Builtjes, P.J.H. (author), Horalek, J. (author), TNO Bouw en Ondergrond (author)
Two different data assimilation techniques have been applied to assess exceedances of the daily and annual mean limit values for PM10 on the regional scale in Europe. The two methods include a statistical interpolation method (SI), based on residual kriging after linear regression of the model, and Ensemble Kalman filtering (EnKF). Both methods...
article 2008
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van der Graaf, S.C. (author), Kranenburg, R. (author), Segers, A.J. (author), Schaap, M. (author)
The nitrogen cycle has been continuously disrupted by human activity over the past century, resulting in almost a tripling of the total reactive nitrogen fixation in Europe. Consequently, excessive amounts of reactive nitrogen (Nr) have manifested in the environment, leading to a cascade of adverse effects, such as acidification and eutrophication...
article 2020
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Schaap, P. (author), Wang, M. (author), Centraal Instituut voor Voedingsonderzoek TNO (author)
article 1993
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Hendriks, C. (author), Kranenburg, R. (author), Kuenen, J.J.P. (author), van den Bril, B. (author), Verguts, V. (author), Schaap, M. (author)
Accurate modelling of mitigation measures for nitrogen deposition and secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) episodes requires a detailed representation of emission patterns from agriculture. In this study the meteorological influence on the temporal variability of ammonia emissions from livestock housing and application of manure and fertilizer are...
article 2016
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Manders, A.M.M. (author), Builtjes, P.J.H. (author), Curier, L. (author), Denier van der Gon, H.A.C. (author), Hendriks, C. (author), Jonkers, S. (author), Kranenburg, R. (author), Kuenen, J.J.P. (author), Segers, A.J. (author), Timmermans, R.M.A. (author), Visschedijk, A.J.H. (author), Wichink Kruit, R.J. (author), van Pul, W.A.J. (author), Sauter, F.J. (author), van der Swaluw, E. (author), Swart, D.P.J. (author), Douros, J. (author), Eskes, H. (author), van Meijgaard, E. (author), van Ulft, B. (author), van Velthoven, P. (author), Banzhaf, S. (author), Mues, A.C. (author), Stern, R. (author), Fu, G. (author), Lu, S. (author), Heemink, A. (author), van Velzen, N. (author), Schaap, M. (author)
The development and application of chemistry transpor tmodels has a long tradition. Within the Netherlands the LOTOS–EUROS model has been developed by a consortium of institutes, after combining its independently developed predecessors in 2005. Recently, version 2.0 of the model was released as an open-source version. This paper presents the...
article 2017
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van den Berg, S.A.A. (author), Heemskerk, M.M. (author), Geerling, J.J. (author), van Klinken, J.B. (author), Schaap, F.G. (author), Bijland, S. (author), Berbée, J.F.P. (author), van Harmelen, V.J.A. (author), Pronk, A.C.M. (author), Schreurs, M. (author), Havekes, L.M. (author), Rensen, P.C.N. (author), van Dijk, K.W. (author)
Mutations in apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) have been associated with hypertriglyceridemia in humans and mice. This has been attributed to a stimulating role for APOA5 in lipoprotein lipase-mediated triglyceride hydrolysis and hepatic clearance of lipoprotein remnant particles. However, because of the low APOA5 plasma abundance, we investigated an...
article 2013
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Steyn, D. (author), Builtjes, P. (author), Schaap, M. (author), Yarwood, G. (author)
article 2012
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Schaap, M. (author), Cuvelier, C. (author), Hendriks, C. (author), Bessagnet, B. (author), Baldasano, J.M. (author), Colette, A. (author), Thunis, P. (author), Karam, D. (author), Fagerli, H. (author), Graff, A. (author), Kranenburg, R. (author), Nyiri, A. (author), Pay, M.T. (author), Rouïl, L. (author), Schulz, M. (author), Simpson, D. (author), Stern, R. (author), Terrenoire, E. (author), Wind, P. (author)
Air pollution causes adverse effects on human health as well as ecosystems and crop yield and also has an impact on climate change trough short-lived climate forcers. To design mitigation strategies for air pollution, 3D Chemistry Transport Models (CTMs) have been developed to support the decision process. Increases in model resolution may...
article 2015
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Schaap, M. (author), van Loon, M. (author), ten Brink, H.M. (author), Dentener, F.J. (author), Builtjes, P.J.H. (author), TNO Milieu, Energie en Procesinnovatie (author)
Nitrate is an important component of (secondary inorganic) fine aerosols in Europe. We present a model sim-ulation for the year 1995 in which we account for the forma-tion of secondary inorganic aerosols including ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate, a semi volatile component. For this purpose, the chemistry-transport model LOTOS was extended...
article 2004
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Kranenburg, R. (author), Segers, A.J. (author), Hendriks, C. (author), Schaap, M. (author)
To design effective mitigation strategies, the origin of emissions which produce air pollutants needs to be known. Contributors to air pollutants can be emission sources, like road traffic or industry, but also be more specified to emission from one location or from a specified time. Chemistry transport models can be used to assess the origin of...
article 2013
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Hamm, N.A.S. (author), Finley, A.O. (author), Schaap, M. (author), Stein, A. (author)
Particulate matter (PM) air quality in Europe has improved substantially over the past decades, but it still poses a significant threat to human health. Accurate regional scale maps of PM10 concentrations are needed for monitoring progress in mitigation strategies and monitoring compliance with statutory limit values. Chemistry transport models ...
article 2015
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Dammers, E. (author), Schaap, M. (author), Haaima, M. (author), Palm, M. (author), Wichink Kruit, R.J. (author), Volten, H. (author), Hansen, A. (author), Swart, D. (author), Erisman, J.W. (author)
Ammonia (NH3) is difficult to monitor at atmospheric concentrations due its high solubility and reac-tivity and the strong spatial and temporal variations of its concentrations. Monitoring is mostly per-formed using passive samplers or filter packs with daily coverage at best. Only at a few sites ammonia is measured with more expensive wet...
article 2017
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