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den Hollander, R.J.M. (author), Adhikari, A. (author), Tolios, I. (author), van Bekkum, M. (author), Bal, A. (author), Hendriks, S. (author), Kruithof, M.C. (author), Gross, D. (author), Jansen, N. (author), Perez, G. (author), Buurman, K. (author), Raaijmakers, S.A. (author)
conference paper 2020
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Gross, D. (author), Jansen, N. (author), Perez, G.A. (author), Raaijmakers, S. (author)
We give a formal verification procedure that decides whether a classifier ensemble is robust against arbitrary randomized attacks. Such attacks consist of a set of deterministic attacks and a distribution over this set. The robustness-checking problem consists of assessing, given a set of classifiers and a labelled data set, whether there exists...
conference paper 2020
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van der Waa, J. (author), van Diggelen, J. (author), Neerincx, M. (author), Raaijmakers, S. (author)
End-users of machine learning-based systems benefit from measures that quantify the trustworthiness of the underlying models. Measures like accuracy provide for a general sense of model performance, but offer no detailed information on specific model outputs. Probabilistic outputs, on the other hand, express such details, but they are not...
conference paper 2018
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Raaijmakers, S. (author), Brewster, C. (author)
conference paper 2018
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Raaijmakers, S.A. (author), Sappelli, M. (author), Kraaij, W. (author)
In this short paper, we address the interpretability of hidden layer representations in deep text mining: deep neural networks applied to text mining tasks. Following earlierwork predating deep learning methods, we exploit the internal neural network activation (latent) space as a source for performing k-nearest neighbor search, looking for...
conference paper 2017
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de Boer, M.H.T. (author), Bouma, H. (author), Kruithof, M.C. (author), ter Haar, F.B. (author), Fischer, N.M. (author), Hagendoorn, L.K. (author), Joosten, B. (author), Raaijmakers, S. (author)
The information available on-line and off-line, from open as well as from private sources, is growing at an exponential rate and places an increasing demand on the limited resources of Law Enforcement Agencies (LEAs). The absence of appropriate tools and techniques to collect, process, and analyze the volumes of complex and heterogeneous data...
conference paper 2017
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Kumar, A. (author), Moet, D. (author), van der Steen, J.L. (author), Tripathi, A.K. (author), Rodriguez, F.G. (author), Maas, J. (author), Simon, M. (author), Reutten, W. (author), Douglas, A. (author), Raaijmakers, R. (author), Malinowski, P.E. (author), Myny, K. (author), Shafique, U. (author), Andriessen, R. (author), Heremans, P. (author), Gelinck, G.H. (author)
We demonstrate organic imaging sensor arrays fabricated on flexible plastic foil with the solution processing route for both photodiodes and thin film transistors. We used the photovoltaic P3HT:PCBM blend for fabricating the photodiodes using spin coating and pentacene as semiconductor material for the TFTs. Photodiodes fabricated with P3HT:PCBM...
conference paper 2014
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Raaijmakers, S.F. (author), Steel, F.W. (author), de Goede, M. (author), van Wouwe, N.C. (author), van Erp, J.B.F. (author), Brouwer, A.M. (author)
High heart rate variability (HRV) and low skin conductance level (SCL) have been associated with low levels of stress. Biofeedback - providing an individual with online information about his or her own physiological state – may help to change these signals in the desired direction and therewith improve an individual’s physical or mental...
conference paper 2013
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Bouma, H. (author), Raaijmakers, S.A. (author), Halma, A.H.R. (author), Wedemeijer, H. (author)
Many threats in the real world can be related to activity of persons on the internet. Internet surveillance aims to predict and prevent attacks and to assist in finding suspects based on information from the web. However, the amount of data on the internet rapidly increases and it is time consuming to monitor many websites. In this paper, we...
conference paper 2012
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Boertjes, E.M. (author), Gerrits, B.M. (author), Kooij, R.E. (author), van Maanen, P.P. (author), Raaijmakers, S.A. (author), de Wit, J.J. (author)
In this paper we describe the development of a model for measuring consumer trust in certain topics on the basis of social media. Specifically, we propose a model for trust that takes into account both textually expressed sentiment and source authority, and illustrate it on a specific case: the iCloud cloud computing service of Apple and its...
conference paper 2012
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Kumar, A. (author), Moet, D. (author), van der Steen, J.L. (author), van Breemen, A.J.J.M. (author), Shanmugam, S. (author), Gilot, J. (author), Andriessen, H.A.J.M. (author), Matthias, S. (author), Ruetten, W. (author), Douglas, A. (author), Raaijmakers, R. (author), Malinowski, P.E. (author), Myny, K. (author), Gelinck, G.H. (author)
We demonstrate high performance X-ray imaging detectors on foil suitable for medical grade X-ray imaging applications. The detectors are based on solution-processed organic photodiodes forming bulk-heterojunctions from photovoltaic donor and acceptor blend. The organic photodiodes are deposited using an industrially compatible slot die coating...
conference paper 2011
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Schavemaker, J.G.M. (author), Doets, P.J. (author), Raaijmakers, S. (author), van Staalduinen, M. (author), Kraaij, W. (author)
conference paper 2011
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Koldijk, S.J. (author), van Staalduinen, M. (author), Raaijmakers, S.A. (author), van Rooij, I. (author), Kraaij, W. (author)
With an increased societal focus on a sustainable economy and a healthy population, well-being of knowledge workers has become an important topic. This paper investigates techniques to support a knowledge worker to manage his well-being. A possible solution is to monitor the workers’ behaviour and use this information for giving feedback as soon...
conference paper 2011
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Raaijmakers, S. (author), Versloot, C. (author), de Wit, J. (author), TNO Informatie- en communicatietechnologie (author)
In this paper, we describe the TNO approach to the Finding Related Resources or linking task of VideoCLEF09. Our system consists of a weighted combination of off-the-shelf and proprietary modules, including the Wikipedia Miner toolkit of the University of Waikato. Using this cocktail of largely off-the-shelf technology allows for setting a...
conference paper 2010
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Raaijmakers, S.A. (author), Kraaij, W. (author), TNO Informatie- en Communicatietechnologie (author)
Textual sentiment classifiers classify texts into a fixed number of affective classes, such as positive, negative or neutral sentiment, or subjective versus objective information. It has been observed that sentiment classifiers suffer from a lack of generalization capability: a classifier trained on a certain domain generally performs worse on...
conference paper 2010
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Raaijmakers, S. (author), Kraaij, W. (author), TNO Informatie en Communicatietechnologie (author)
In this paper we describe the TNO approach to large-scale polarity classification of the Blog TREC 2008 dataset. Our participation consists of the submission of the 5 baseline runs provided by NIST, for which we applied a multinomial kernel machine operating on character n-gram representations.
conference paper 2009
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Hinne, M. (author), Kraaij, W. (author), Raaijmakers, S. (author), Verberne, S. (author), van der Weide, T. (author), van der Heijden, M. (author), TNO Informatie- en Communicatietechnologie (author)
Recently a number of studies have demonstrated that search engine logfiles are an important resource to determine the relevance relation between URLs and query terms. We hypothesized that the queries associated with a URL could also be presented as useful URL metadata in a search engine result list, e.g. for helping to determine the semantic...
conference paper 2009
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Kraaij, W. (author), Raaijmakers, S.A. (author), Elzinga, P. (author), TNO Informatie- en Communicatietechnologie (author)
We propose a novel and intuitive way to quantify the utility of a classifier in cases where automatic classification is deployed as partial replacement of human effort, but accuracy requirements exceed the capabilities of the classifier at hand. in our approach, a binary classifier is combined with a meta-classifier mapping all decisions of the...
conference paper 2008
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Raaijmakers, S.A. (author), Truong, K.P. (author), Wilson, T. (author), TNO Informatie- en communicatietechnologie TNO Defensie en Veiligheid (author)
We investigate the combination of several sources of information for the purpose of subjectivity recognition and polarity classification in meetings. We focus on features from two modalities, transcribed words and acoustics, and we compare the performance of three different textual representations: words, characters, and phonemes. Our...
conference paper 2008
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Wilson, T. (author), Raaijmakers, S.A. (author), TNO Informatie- en communicatietechnologie (author)
In this paper, we compare the performance of classifiers trained using word n-grams, character n-grams, and phoneme n-grams for recognizing subjective utterances in multiparty conversation. We show that there is value in using very shallow linguistic representations, such as character n-grams, for recognizing subjective utterances, in particular...
conference paper 2008
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