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Theelen, M.J. (author), Schiepers, E. (author), Vermeer, J. (author), Falk, S. (author), Hovestad, A. (author), Steijvers, H.L.A.H. (author), van der Vleuten, M. (author), Bakker, K. (author), Dörenkämper, M. (author), Linden, H. (author)
Two step atmospheric pressure processing of Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 absorbers is an industrially attractive technology to produce CIGS thin film modules. For this procedure, absorber sulfurization is required to increase the Voc and thus the efficiency of the solar cells. Raman spectroscopy was used to qualitatively identify the presence of sulfur on...
conference paper 2018
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Theelen, M. (author), de Amorim Soares, G. (author), Beyeler, K. (author), Steijvers, H. (author), Barreau, N. (author)
Unpackaged CIGS solar cells were simultaneously exposed to illumination and either dry heat, damp heat or dry cold followed by thermal cycling. In-situ monitoring of their electrical parameters demonstrated a rapid decrease of the efficiency for the solar cells exposed to damp heat plus illumination. This decrease was mainly driven by changes in...
conference paper 2017
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Weeber, A.W. (author), Bakker, N.J. (author), Steijvers, H.L.A.H. (author), Mortazavi, S. (author), Carolus, J. (author), Daenen, M. (author), de Amorim Soares, G. (author), Theelen, M. (author), Energieonderzoek Centrum Nederland (author)
Partial shading on photovoltaic modules can cause cells to operate at reverse bias conditions. An innovative experimental setup with two test protocols has been designed to simulate the effect of reverse bias voltage on small scale CIGS solar cells with a metal grid. In these tests, the effect on the performance of the solar cells exposed to...
conference paper 2017
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Theelen, M. (author), Steijvers, H. (author), Bakker, K. (author), Vink, J. (author), Mortazavi, S. (author), Mulder, A. (author), Barreau, N. (author), Roosen, D. (author), Haverkamp, E. (author)
Two hybrid degradation setups, allowing exposure of solar cells and modules to elevated temperatures and humidity as well as illumination have been built. CIGS solar cells were placed in the degradation setups, allowing real time monitoring of their electrical properties. Under open circuit conditions, the efficiency of alkali-rich CIGS solar...
conference paper 2016
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Theelen, M. (author), Barreau, N. (author), Hans, V. (author), Steijvers, H. (author), Vroon, Z. (author), Zeman, M. (author)
Non-encapsulated CIGS solar cells with different contents of sodium (Na) and potassium (K) were simultaneously exposed to damp heat and illumination. The solar cells with higher alkali (Na, K) content exhibited higher initial conversion efficiencies, but degraded severely within 100 hours, while samples with a lower alkali content retained their...
conference paper 2015
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Theelen, M. (author), Foster, C. (author), Steijvers, H. (author), Barreau, N. (author), Frijters, C. (author), Vroon, Z. (author), Zeman, M. (author)
CIGS solar cells and non-covered molybdenum areas and scribes were exposed to liquid water purged with the atmospheric gases carbon dioxide (CO2), oxygen (O2), nitrogen (N2) and air in order to investigate their degradation behavior. The samples were analyzed by electrical, compositional and optical measurements before, during and after exposure...
conference paper 2015
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Theelen, M. (author), Steijvers, H. (author), Barreau, N. (author), Buffiere, M. (author), Brammertz, G. (author), Flammini, M.G. (author), van Vugt, R.J. (author), Vroon, Z. (author), Zeman, M. (author)
A 'hybrid' degradation setup, which allows the use of humidity, temperature and illumination as loads in order to accelerate degradation of solar cells and modules, has been designed and constructed. In this setup, the current voltage output of photovoltaic samples is automatically logged and the electrical parameters are calculated. This allows...
conference paper 2015
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Theelen, M.J. (author), Barreau, N. (author), Daume, F. (author), Steijvers, H.L.A.H. (author), Hans, V.O. (author), Liakopoulou, A. (author), Vroon, Z.A.E.P. (author), Zeman, M. (author)
An hybrid degradation setup, in which humidity, temperature and illumination are used in order to accelerate degradation of CIGS, has been developed. This setup consists of a climate chamber, which can vary the temperature and humidity. Furthermore, an area of 80x80 cm2 is illuminated, which allows both the study of light induced behvaior and...
conference paper 2014
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Theelen, M. (author), Tomassini, M. (author), Steijvers, H. (author), Vroon, Z. (author), Barreau, N. (author), Zeman, M. (author)
A unique method has been developed to in-situ monitor the accelerated degradation in Cu(In, Ga)Se2 solar cells, in which a degradation setup uses humidity, high temperatures and illumination as loads. IV characteristics of the solar cells are collected during the degradation. Cu(In, Ga)Se2 solar cells and minimodules were degraded in the set-up...
conference paper 2013
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Illiberi, A. (author), Kniknie, B. (author), van Deelen, J. (author), Steijvers, H.L.A.H. (author), Habets, D. (author), Simons, P.J.P.M. (author), Janssen, A.C. (author), Beckers, E.H.A. (author)
Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnOx:Al) films have been deposited on a moving glass substrate by a high throughput metalorganic chemical vapor deposition process at atmospheric pressure. Thin (< 250 nm) ZnOx:Al films have a poor crystalline quality, due to a small grain size and the presence of different crystallographic orientations. The...
conference paper 2012
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Theelen, M.J. (author), Steijvers, H.L.A.H. (author), Vroon, Z.A.E.P. (author), Tomassini, M. (author), Barreau, N. (author), Zeman, M. (author)
conference paper 2012
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van Deelen, J. (author), Kniknie, B.J. (author), Steijvers, H.L.A.H. (author), Mannie, G. (author), Thune, P. (author), Illiberi, A. (author)
Atmospheric pressure CVD (APCVD) is a highly cost effective method of depositing transparent conductive oxides (TCOs). In this work, insights in alcohol addition in the widely applied SnO2 process are discussed, including high resolution TEM images. Furthermore, the APCVD process of ZnO:Al was demonstrated on an industrial moving belt APCVD...
conference paper 2012
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Theelen, M. (author), Tomassini, M. (author), Barreau, N. (author), Steijvers, H. (author), Branca, A. (author), Harel, S. (author), Vroon, Z. (author), Zeman, M. (author)
Molybdenum (Mo) degrades under the influence of damp heat, thereby reducing the output of CIGS PV. In this study, Mo layers were deposited on a glass substrate by magnetron sputtering, thereby varying the deposition pressure and the addition of selenium. These samples were thoroughly analysed and degraded at 60°C/60% relative humidity (RH) and...
conference paper 2012
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Illiberi, A. (author), Kniknie, B. (author), Steijvers, H.L.A.H. (author), Habets, D. (author), Simons, P.J.P.M. (author), Beckers, E.H.A. (author), van Deelen, J. (author)
Aluminum doped ZnOx (ZnOx:Al) films have been deposited on glass in an in-line industrial-type reactor by a metalorganic chemical vapor deposition process at atmospheric pressure. ZnOx:Al films can be grown at very high deposition rates of ~ 14 nm/s for a substrate speed from 150 mm/min to 500 mm/min. ZnOx:Al films are highly conductive (R < 9...
conference paper 2012
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Energieonderzoek Centrum Nederland (author), Späth, M. (author), Broek, K.M. (author), van den Nieuwenhof, M.A.C.J. (author), de Jong, P.C. (author), Kloos, M.J.H. (author), Meuwissen, M.H.H. (author), Steijvers, H.L.A.H. (author)
n.v.t.
conference paper 2007
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