Harmonic pulse testing for well monitoring: Application to a fractured geothermal reservoir
Harmonic Pulse Testing (HPT) has been developed as a type of well testing applicable during ongoing field operations because a pulsed signal is superimposed on background pressure trend. Its purpose is to determine well and formation parameters such as wellbore storage, skin, permeability, and boundaries within the investigated volume. Compared to conventional well testing, HPT requires more time to investigate the same reservoir volume. The advantage is that it does not require the interruption of well and reservoir injection/production before and/or during the test because it allows the extraction of an interpretable periodic signal from measured pressure potentially affected by interference. This makes it an ideal monitoring tool. Interpretation is streamlined through diagnostic plots mimicking conventional well test interpretation methods. To this end, analytical solutions in the frequency domain are available. The methodology was applied to monitor stimulation operations performed at an Enhanced Geothermal System site in Pohang, Korea. The activities were divided into two steps: first, a preliminary sequence of tests, injection/fall‐off, and two HPTs, characterized by low injection rates and dedicated to estimate permeability prior to stimulation operations, and then stimulation sequence characterized by a higher injection rate. During the stimulation operations other HPT were performed to monitor formation properties behavior. The interpretation of HPT data through the derivative approach implemented in the frequency domain provided reliable results in agreement with the injection test. Moreover, it provided an estimation of hydraulic properties without cessation of stimulation operations, thus confirming the effectiveness of HPT application for monitoring purposes.
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Geological Survey Netherlands
Water Resources Research, 1-18