the market of cheating devices and testing matrix with a priorization for testing of vehicle tampering technique combinations. Deliverable D3.1
van den Meiracker, J.A.
Pollutant emissions of road vehicles have reduced significantly thanks to the development and application of effective and often complex emissions control systems. Tampering of these systems leads to elevated emissions levels comparable to uncontrolled levels of vehicles of decades ago. Therefore, a small share of tampering potentially leads to a significant increase of the EU fleet average emissions. For task 3.1 of DIAS, a market assessment was conducted to determine the market of tampering in terms of size, appearance and involved players, to reveal the motivations for tampering and to identify the different types of tampering offered. The exercise has led to a proposal for a test matrix of vehicle – tampering combinations that poses the largest environmental risk and which should be tested in the next project phase to determine the current vulnerabilities and exploits of vehicles that need to be addressed by the DIAS concept. The following conclusions can be drawn: There is a substantial market where tampering is offered for both light‐ and heavy duty vehicles and non‐road mobile machinery. However, not much quantitative information is available which indicates the magnitude of the problem, i.e. the number of vehicles that are tampered in the EU. An important source that does indicate tampering in the EU are road side inspections for trucks were significant tampering rates were found for previous generations of heavy duty vehicles for which an advanced emissions control system is required (Euro IV and V). The inspections are however often selective, targeting specific vehicles based on experience and assumptions, most likely resulting in biased data. The magnitude of the problem is largely unknown for Euro VI and the light duty and non‐road mobile machinery segments. The motive mentioned most for tampering is to avoid costs for repair of malfunctions of the emissions control systems of diesel engines. Other motives mentioned are: costs for consumables, costs for downtime, performance tuning and exhaust sound level. Emissions control systems with higher rates of malfunctions and related costs for repair may therefore pose the largest environmental risk: SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction), DPF (Diesel Particle Filter), EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) for diesel engines but possibly also TWC (Three‐Way Catalyst) for older gasoline engines
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Mobility & Logistics
TNO, Den Haag
DIAS. smart Adaptive Remote Diagnostic Antitampering Systems