Print Email Facebook Twitter Fruits, vegetables and lung cancer: A pooled analysis of cohort studies Title Fruits, vegetables and lung cancer: A pooled analysis of cohort studies Author Smith-Warner, S.A. Spiegelman, D. Yaun, S.-S. Albanes, D. Beeson, W.L. van den Brandt, P.A. Feskanich, D. Folsom, A.R. Fraser, G.E. Freudenheim, J.L. Giovannucci, E. Goldbohm, R.A. Graham, S. Kushi, L.H. Miller, A.B. Pietinen, P. Rohan, T.E. Speizer, F.E. Willett, W.C. Hunter, D.J. Publication year 2003 Abstract Inverse associations between fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer risk have been consistently reported. However, identifying the specific fruits and vegetables associated with lung cancer is difficult because the food groups and foods evaluated have varied across studies. We analyzed fruit and vegetable groups using standardized exposure and covariate definitions in 8 prospective studies. We combined study-specific relative risks (RRs) using a random effects model. In the pooled database, 3,206 incident lung cancer cases occurred among 430,281 women and men followed for up to 6-16 years across studies. Controlling for smoking habits and other lung cancer risk factors, a 16-23% reduction in lung cancer risk was observed for quintiles 2 through 5 vs. the lowest quintile of consumption for total fruits (RR = 0.77; 95% CI = 0.67-0.87 for quintile 5; p-value, test for trend < 0.001) and for total fruits and vegetables (RR = 0.79; 95% CI = 0.69-0.90; p-value, test for trend = 0.001). For the same comparison, the association was weaker for total vegetable consumption (RR = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.78-1.00; p-value, test for trend = 0.12). Associations were similar between never, past, and current smokers. These results suggest that elevated fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with a modest reduction in lung cancer risk, which is mostly attributable to fruit, not vegetable, intake. However, we cannot rule out the possibility that our results are due to residual confounding by smoking. The primary focus for reducing lung cancer incidence should continue to be smoking prevention and cessation. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Subject Nutrition HealthFood and Chemical Risk AnalysisCohort studiesFruitLung neoplasmsPoolingVegetablesarticlecancer incidencecancer preventioncancer riskcohort analysiscovariancedata basefollow upfood intakefruithumanlung adenocarcinomalung cancerlung small cell cancerlung squamous cell carcinomamultivariate analysispriority journalquestionnairerisk factorsmokingsmoking cessationvegetableAnalysis of VarianceCohort StudiesFemaleFruitHumansLung NeoplasmsMaleReproducibility of ResultsRiskRisk FactorsSample SizeSmokingVegetables To reference this document use: http://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:cce0f633-823b-4c09-b6be-05145ccd7cd6 DOI https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.11490 TNO identifier 237534 ISSN 0020-7136 Source International Journal of Cancer, 107 (6), 1001-1011 Document type article Files To receive the publication files, please send an e-mail request to TNO Library.