Print Email Facebook Twitter The transferability from rat subacute 4-week oral toxicity study to translational research exemplified by two pharmaceutical immunosuppressants and two environmental pollutants with immunomodulating properties Title The transferability from rat subacute 4-week oral toxicity study to translational research exemplified by two pharmaceutical immunosuppressants and two environmental pollutants with immunomodulating properties Author Kemmerling, J. Fehlert, E. Kuper, C.F. Rühl-Fehlert, C. Stropp, G. Vogels, J. Krul, C. Vohr, H.W. Publication year 2015 Abstract Exposure to chemicals may have an influence on the immune system. Often, this is an unwanted effect but in some pharmaceuticals, it is the intended mechanism of action. Immune function tests and in depth histopathological investigations of immune organs were integrated in rodent toxicity studies performed according to an extended OECD test guideline 407 protocol. Exemplified by two immunosuppressive drugs, azathioprine and cyclosporine A, and two environmental chemicals, hexachlorobenzene and benzo[a]pyrene, results of subacute rat studies were compared to knowledge in other species particular in humans. Although immune function has a high concordance in mammalian species, regarding the transferability from rodents to humans various factors have to be taken into account. In rats, sensitivity seems to depend on factors such as strain, sex, stress levels as well as metabolism. The two immunosuppressive drugs showed a high similarity of effects in animals and humans as the immune system was the most sensitive target in both. Hexachlorobenzene gave an inconsistent pattern of effects when considering the immune system of different species. In some species pronounced inflammation was observed, whereas in primates liver toxicity seemed more obvious. Generally, the immune system was not the most sensitive target in hexachlorobenzene-treatment. Immune function tests in rats gave evidence of a reaction to systemic inflammation rather than a direct impact on immune cells. Data from humans are likewise equivocal. In the case of benzo[a]pyrene, the immune system was the most sensitive target in rats. In the in vitro plaque forming cell assay (Mishell-Dutton culture) a direct comparison of cells from different species including rat and human was possible and showed similar reactions. The doses in the rat study had, however, no realistic relation to human exposure, which occurs exclusively in mixtures and in a much lower range. In summary, a case by case approach is necessary when testing immunotoxicity. Improvements for the translation from animals to humans related to immune cells can be expected from in vitro tests which offer direct comparison with reactions of human immune cells. This may lead to a better understanding of results and variations seen in animal studies. Subject LifeRAPID - Risk Analysis for Products in DevelopmentELSS - Earth, Life and Social SciencesFood and NutritionPharmacologyHealthy LivingAzathioprineBenzo[a]pyreneCyclosporine AHexachlorobenzeneImmunotoxicologyTest GuidelineImmunotoxicity To reference this document use: http://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:adf331c5-303b-4025-8591-5ca821cfc459 DOI https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2015.03.032 TNO identifier 525821 Source European Journal of Pharmacology, 759, 326-342 Article number 69833 Document type article Files To receive the publication files, please send an e-mail request to TNO Library.