Print Email Facebook Twitter Specific agreement on ordinal and multiple nominal outcomes can be calculated for more than two raters Title Specific agreement on ordinal and multiple nominal outcomes can be calculated for more than two raters Author de Vet, H.C.W. Mullender, M.G. Eekhout, I. Publication year 2018 Abstract Objective: The concept of specific agreement (SA) has been proposed for dichotomous outcomes for two or more raters. We aim to extend this concept for variables with more than two ordinal or nominal categories and more than two raters. Study Design and Setting: We used two data sets: four plastic surgeons classifying photographs after breast reconstruction on a 5-point ordinal scale and six raters classifying psychiatric patients into five diagnostic categories. For m raters, all (i.e., m(m−1)/2) pairwise agreement tables were summed to calculate the observed agreement (OA), SA and conditional probabilities. The 95% confidence intervals were obtained by bootstrapping. Results: SA was calculated for each ordinal or nominal category to examine when one of the raters scored in a specific category, what is the probability that the other raters scored in that same category. And suppose one of the raters scored X1, what is the probability that the other raters scored X1 or any of the other categories (conditional probability). It appeared, for example, that among the psychiatric disorders, depression and personality disorders were often mixed up, whereas neurosis was rarely mixed up with schizophrenia. Conclusion: The concept of SA for variables with ordinal and multiple nominal categories provides relevant clinical information. The extension to conditional probabilities of alternative categories broadens the clinical application with examining which categories are most often mixed up. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. Subject 2015 LifeCH - Child HealthELSS - Earth, Life and Social SciencesHealthy for LifeHealthHealthy LivingConditional probabilityDifferential diagnosisNominal variablesObserved agreementOrdinal variablesSpecific agreementBootstrappingBreast reconstructionConfidence intervalDepressionFemaleHumanPersonality disorderPhotographyProbabilityRating scaleSchizophreniaSpecific agreementStatistical concepts To reference this document use: http://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:a4a29164-3e15-40ee-b963-803ffe6edcf4 DOI https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2017.11.024 TNO identifier 788251 ISSN 0895-4356 Source Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 96, 47-53 Document type article Files To receive the publication files, please send an e-mail request to TNO Library.