2'-Fucosyllactose inhibits proliferation of Clostridioides difficile ATCC 43599 in the CDi-screen, an in vitro model simulating Clostridioides difficile infection
van den Broek, T.J.
de Boer, P.
Background: Clostridioides difficile is a Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium that can produce the toxins TcdA and/or TcdB and is considered an opportunistic pathogen. C. difficile is mainly transmitted as endospores, which germinate to produce the pathogenic vegetative cells under suitable conditions in the gut. To efficiently screen novel therapeutic- interventions against the proliferation of C. difficile within a complex microbial community, platforms are needed that facilitate parallel experimentation. In order to allow for screening of novel interventions a medium-to-high throughput in vitro system is desirable. To this end, we have developed the 96-well CDi-screen platform that employs an adapted simulated ileal effluent medium (CDi-SIEM) and allows for culturing of pathogenic C. difficile. Methods: C. difficile strain ATCC 43599 was inoculated in the form of vegetative cells and spores into the CDi-screen in the presence and absence of a cultured fecal microbiota and incubated for 48h. To demonstrate its utility, we investigated the effect of the human milk oligosaccharide 2'-Fucosyllactose (2'-FL) at 4 and 8 mg/mL on C. difficile outgrowth and toxin production in the CDi-screen. The test conditions were sampled after 24 and 48 hours. C. difficile -specific primers were used to monitor C. difficile growth via qPCR and barcoded 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing facilitated the in-depth analysis of gut microbial community dynamics. Results: C. difficile ATCC 43599 proliferated in CDi-SIEM, both when inoculated as spores and as vegetative cells. The strain reached cell numbers expressed as C. difficile genome equivalents of up to 10 8 cells per mL after 24h of incubation. 2'-FL significantly inhibited the outgrowth of the ATTC 43599 strain within a complex human gut microbial community in the CDi-screen. In addition, a dose-dependent modulation of the gut microbial community composition by 2'-FL supplementation was detected, with a significant increase in the relative abundance of the genus Blautia in the presence of 2'-FL. Conclusion: The CDi-screen is suitable for studying C. difficile proliferation in a complex gut ecosystem and for screening for anti-pathogenic interventions that target C. difficile directly and/or indirectly through interactions with the gut microbiota. Different doses of compounds such as in this study the dose of the human milk oligosaccharide 2'-FL can be screened for efficacy in the inhibition of C. difficile proliferation.
Clostridioides difficile infection
To reference this document use:
Human milk oligosaccharide
In vitro gut model
Frontiers in Cellular Infection Microbiology, Epub 28 Oct
The datasets presented in this study can be found in online repositories. The names of the repository/repositories and accession number(s) can be found below: https://https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sra/PRJNA858224, Biosamples are: SRX16159794 - SRX16159844.