Parent, child, and situational factors associated with parenting stress: a systematic review
van Grieken, A.
Parenting stress has been related to adverse health outcomes in parents, children, and their families. This systematic review aimed to provide an overview of parental, child, and situational factors related to parenting stress in mothers and fathers. We searched Embase, Medline Epub (Ovid), PsychInfo (Ovid), Web of Science, and Google scholar for studies published between January 1980 and May 2021 evaluating the association between at least one factor and parenting stress. Studies were included only if they reported the association in a general population sample of mothers and fathers with children aged 0-12 years. The parent-child relationship model by Abidin guided the data synthesis. Quality of the evidence was assessed using the Standard Quality Assessment Criteria for Evaluating Primary Research Papers from a variety of fields. In total, 29 studies were included with excellent quality (55%), good (31%), and adequate (14%) methodological quality. There was evidence of an association between maternal depression, child overall problems, child externalizing and internalizing problems, social support, maternal educational level and maternal parenting stress. Evidence was inconsistent for an association between maternal anxiety, family income and maternal parenting stress. There was no evidence of an association for maternal age, child sex and maternal parenting stress. Several modifiable factors (i.e., parental depression and social support) were identified that might guide the development of preventive interventions. Future research should employ longitudinal study designs evaluating protective and risk factors and the pathways that lead to parenting stress, among both fathers and mothers.
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Risk and protective factors
European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Epub 25 July