Print Email Facebook Twitter Setting an indoor air exposure limit for formaldehyde: Factors of concern Title Setting an indoor air exposure limit for formaldehyde: Factors of concern Author Arts, J.H.E. Muijser, H. Kuper, C.F. Woutersen, R.A. TNO Kwaliteit van Leven Publication year 2008 Abstract The paper aims to evaluate the indoor air limit of 1 μg/m3 (0.8 ppb) formaldehyde as advised by the European Commission [the INDEX project; Kotzias, D., Koistinen, K., Kephalopoulos, S., Schlitt, C., Carrer, P., Maroni, M., Jantunen, M., Cochet, C., Kirchner, S., Lindvall, T., McLaughlin, J., Mølhave, L., de Oliveira Fernandes, E., Seifert, B., 2005. Critical appraisal of the setting and implementation of indoor exposure limits in the EU. European Commission, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Physical and Chemical Exposure Unit, Ispra, Italy, pp. 1-50]. The limit has been based on a nose and throat irritation threshold of 0.1 mg/m3 (0.08 ppm; LOAEL), a NOAEL of 0.03 mg/m3 (0.025 ppm) and an assessment factor of 30, including a factor of 3 for the higher sensitivity of children. Nose and throat irritation, at concentrations below which hyperplasia/metaplasia occurs, are most likely the manifestation of trigeminal nerve stimulation (sensory irritation). The threshold for sensory irritation in human volunteers is 1 ppm, much higher than the 0.1 mg/m3 indicated above. Eye irritation is the most sensitive effect reported in human volunteers but has been mentioned only occasionally in the studies used by the European Commission. Moreover, sensory irritation is a local reaction that requires a low assessment factor, if any. It is difficult to judge the sensitivity for sensory irritation in children because of the potential confounding factors in the evaluated studies. It is concluded that an indoor air level of 0.1 ppm (0.12 mg/m3) formaldehyde, as indicated by Appel et al. (2006) [Appel, K.E., Bernauer, U., Herbst, U., Madle, S., Schulte, A., Richter-Reichhelm, H.B., Gundert-Remy, U. 2006. Kann für Formaldehyd eine "sichere" Konzentration abgeleitet werden?-Analyse der Daten zur krebserzeugenden Wirkung (Can a "safe" concentration be established for formaldehyde?-Analysis of carcinogenicity data)? Umweltmed. Forsch. Prax. 11, 347-361], can be considered a safe and appropriate level. © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Chemicals / CAS: formaldehyde, 50-00-0; Air Pollutants; Carcinogens; Formaldehyde, 50-00-0; Irritants Subject HealthToxicology and Applied PharmacologyExposure limitFormaldehydeIndoor airSensory irritationAir quality standardAmbient airEnvironmental exposureEye irritationNose irritationThroat irritationAdministration, InhalationAir PollutantsCarcinogensChildEuropean UnionEyeFormaldehydeHumansInhalation ExposureIrritantsNo-Observed-Adverse-Effect LevelNoseOccupational ExposurePharynxTrigeminal Nerve To reference this document use: http://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:7899b0f9-b422-4053-9b93-ac886488a3e7 DOI https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2008.08.009 TNO identifier 241100 ISSN 0273-2300 Source Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 52 (2), 189-194 Document type article Files To receive the publication files, please send an e-mail request to TNO Library.