Print Email Facebook Twitter Application of kurtosis to underwater sound Title Application of kurtosis to underwater sound Author Müller, R.A.J. von Benda-Beckmann, A.M. Halvorsen, M.B. Ainslie, M.A. Publication year 2020 Abstract Regulations for underwater anthropogenic noise are typically formulated in terms of peak sound pressure, root-mean-square sound pressure, and (weighted or unweighted) sound exposure. Sound effect studies on humans and other terrestrial mammals suggest that in addition to these metrics, the impulsiveness of sound (often quantified by its kurtosis β) is also related to the risk of hearing impairment. Kurtosis is often used to distinguish between ambient noise and transients, such as echolocation clicks and dolphin whistles. A lack of standardization of the integration interval leads to ambiguous kurtosis values, especially for transient signals. In the current research, kurtosis is applied to transient signals typical for high-power underwater noise. For integration time (t 2 - t 1), the quantity (t 2 - t 1) / β is shown to be a robust measure of signal duration, closely related to the effective signal duration, τ eff for sounds from airguns, pile driving, and explosions. This research provides practical formulas for kurtosis of impulsive sounds and compares kurtosis between measurements of transient sounds from different sources. © 2020 Acoustical Society of America. Subject Acoustic noiseAuditionHigher order statisticsMammalsPile drivingPilesSignalingAnthropogenic noiseEcholocation clicksHearing impairmentsIntegration timeRoot Mean SquareTransient signalUnderwater noiseUnderwater soundUnderwater acousticsAir gunExplosionHumanNoiseStandardization To reference this document use: http://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:5206c6c9-37c4-4a6e-89e4-154da5f540b3 DOI https://doi.org/10.1121/10.0001631 TNO identifier 880192 Publisher Acoustical Society of America ISSN 0001-4966 Source Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 148 (2), 780-792 Document type article Files To receive the publication files, please send an e-mail request to TNO Library.