Print Email Facebook Twitter Fundus reflectance: Historical and present ideas Title Fundus reflectance: Historical and present ideas Author Berendschot, T.T.J.M. Delint, P.J. van Norren, D. TNO Technische Menskunde Publication year 2003 Abstract In 1851 Helmholtz introduced the ophthalmoscope. The instrument allowed the observation of light reflected at the fundus. The development of this device was one of the major advancements in ophthalmology. Yet ophthalmoscopy allows only qualitative observation of the eye. Since 1950 attempts were made to address the challenging, quantitative assessment of the amount of light reflected by the fundus. At first, only comparative measurements were possible, applied in the study of macular and visual pigments. With improvements in light detecting techniques, and with the advent of microprocessors, the measurement of spectral and spatial distribution of the reflectance became feasible. This led to the development of models that explained the observed wavelength dependence and the directional behavior of light reflected from the fovea. The models allowed a quantitative assessment of many parameters on absorption and reflection by structures in the human eye. This paper provides a review of both the experimental and theoretical progress, and summarizes the results of fundamental and clinical research using fundus reflectometry. Subject VisionagingalbinismamblyopiacalibrationcameraConecorneaDensitometrydeviceDiabetes mellitusDominant inheritanceDystrophyEyeFundusGenetic disorderGlaucomahemoglobinimaging systemlaser coagulationlenslight absorptionlipofuscinMacular pigmentMelaninmyopianerve fiberOcular PhysiologyOcular reflectorsOphthalmologyOphthalmoscopesoximetryphotographyPhotoreceptorpigment epitheliumReflectometryretina macula age related degenerationretina macula cystoid edemaretina macula edemaretinitis pigmentosaretinopathyRodScanning laser opthalmoscopescleraspectral sensitivityStiles-Crawfordvideorecordingvisual acuityVisual pigmentX chromosome linkageHistory To reference this document use: http://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:12e7126f-aba5-4676-aa07-4f2360061c3c TNO identifier 12701 Source Progress in retinal and eye research, 22 (2), 171-200 Document type article Files To receive the publication files, please send an e-mail request to TNO Library.