Pesticides in the cultivation of carnations in greenhouses: Part I - Exposure and concomitant health risk
Medisch Biologisch Laboratorium TNO
de Mik, G.
van Hemmen, J.J.
Respiratory exposure and dermal exposure of the hands and forearms to the pesticides chlorothalonil, thiophanate-methyl, thiram, and zineb during application and during crop activities have been measured on 18 farms for carnation culture in glass-covered greenhouses in the Netherlands. Farms were selected according to a 'worst case' strategy with regard to dermal exposure during cutting of flowers. For 94 workers, the geometric mean dermal exposure rate during cutting (measured on long-sleeved cotton glove monitors) was 10.1 mg/hr (active ingredient per unit of actual working time) and during sorting/bundling of these flowers by 35 workers the dermal exposure rate was 7.3 mg/hr. The average concentration in air as measured by personal air sampling during cutting after a pesticide had been dusted was 0.07 mg/m3. For the same area, spraying a pesticide exposed the applicator to a dermal exposure seven times higher than dusting. However, during dusting respiratory exposure was higher. Generally, overall exposure is higher during re-entry activities than during application. From the observed levels of dermal exposure during harvesting (re-entry) and from toxicity data, health risk occurs after application of pesticides that are relatively toxic and show relatively good skin-penetrating properties at relatively high application rates. The respiratory exposure to dusted pesticides after re-entry is about as high as during application of these pesticides and may in some situations also result in health risks. Training and education of greenhouse workers on (personal) hygiene and use of protective gloves are advocated in order to reduce exposure. Chemicals/CAS: thiophanate methyl, 23564-05-8; thiram, 137-26-8; zineb, 12122-67-7; Agrochemicals.
To reference this document use:
Health Status Indicators
Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 53 (53), 575-581