Print Email Facebook Twitter Dealing with unexpected events on the flight deck: A conceptual model of startle and surprise Title Dealing with unexpected events on the flight deck: A conceptual model of startle and surprise Author Landman, H.M. Groen, E.L. van Paassen, M.M. Bronkhorst, A.W. Mulder, M. Publication year 2017 Abstract Objective: A conceptual model is proposed in order to explain pilot performance in surprising and startling situations. Background: Today’s debate around loss of control following in-flight events and the implementation of upset prevention and recovery training has highlighted the importance of pilots’ ability to deal with unexpected events. Unexpected events, such as technical malfunctions or automation surprises, potentially induce a "startle factor" that may significantly impair performance. Method: Literature on surprise, startle, resilience, and decision making is reviewed, and findings are combined into a conceptual model. A number of recent flight incident and accident cases are then used to illustrate elements of the model. Results: Pilot perception and actions are conceptualized as being guided by "frames," or mental knowledge structures that were previously learned. Performance issues in unexpected situations can often be traced back to insufficient adaptation of one’s frame to the situation. It is argued that such sensemaking or reframing processes are especially vulnerable to issues caused by startle or acute stress. Conclusion: Interventions should focus on (a) increasing the supply and quality of pilot frames (e.g., though practicing a variety of situations), (b) increasing pilot reframing skills (e.g., through the use of unpredictability in training scenarios), and (c) improving pilot metacognitive skills, so that inappropriate automatic responses to startle and surprise can be avoided. Application: The model can be used to explain pilot behavior in accident cases, to design experiments and training simulations, to teach pilots metacognitive skills, and to identify intervention methods. © 2017, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. Subject Human & Operational ModellingPCS - Perceptual and Cognitive SystemsELSS - Earth, Life and Social SciencesAviationaviationmental modelspilot performanceresiliencetrainingAccidentsAviationPersonnel trainingDesign experimentsIntervention methodsMental modelMetacognitive skillsPilot performanceresilienceTechnical malfunctionsTraining simulationDecision makingaccidentacute stressairplane pilotdecision makinghumanhuman experimentperceptionsimulationskill To reference this document use: http://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:e9538244-2009-4a7f-bb51-4d9c78dbc5f5 DOI https://doi.org/10.1177/0018720817723428 TNO identifier 781404 Publisher SAGE Publications Inc. ISSN 0018-7208 Source Human Factors, 59 (8), 1161-1172 Document type article Files To receive the publication files, please send an e-mail request to TNO Library.