Print Email Facebook Twitter Pharmacokinetics of three oximes in a guinea pig model and efficacy of combined oxime therapy Title Pharmacokinetics of three oximes in a guinea pig model and efficacy of combined oxime therapy Author Bohnert, S. van den Berg, R.M. Mikler, J. Klaassen, S.D Joosen, M.J.A. Publication year 2020 Abstract Organophosphorus nerve agents (NA) inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) which results in the over-stimulation of both the central and peripheral nervous systems, creating a toxic syndrome that can be lethal if left untreated (Cannard, 2006). It is standard practice to treat Sarin (GB) intoxication with an oxime, an antimuscarinic such as atropine and an anticonvulsant. Three common oximes are available: HI-6, Pralidoxime (2-PAM) and Obidoxime (Obi), all possess a nucleophile that can break the NA-AChE covalent bond. However, each oxime’s efficacy profile against various agents is different (Thiermann and Worek, 2018). In an effort to broaden therapeutic efficacy against a range of possible NA’s, consideration should be given to the use of two oximes in combination. Using a guinea pig model, the first arm of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics (PK) of HI-6 DMS, 2-PAM chloride and Obi chloride (at autoinjector equivalent doses) following intramuscular (i.m.) co-administration along with atropine to replicate either a single isometrically scaled dose (referred to in this study as a single autoinjector equivalent) of 2-PAM (and equimolar doses of Obi and HI-6) or double doses (referred to in this study as two autoinjector equivalents). The second arm of the study evaluated the efficacy of Obi and 2-PAM individually at a single or double autoinjector dose and also in combination against GB exposure. Pharmacokinetic profiles of each oxime were evaluated for both arms of the study and no significant change in parameters were reported. Improved cholinesterase reactivation was observed in a dose dependent manner with combined therapy showing similar reactivation to individual oximes alone at a two autoinjector equivalent dose. Seizure activity was reduced when combined oxime therapy was administered. This improvement was also reflected in the Racine seizure index score assigned at the end of the experimental period. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to evaluate and compare the pharmacokinetics of three oximes and the combination of two oximes (2-PAM and Obi) administered in naïve animals or those exposed to GB. Combined oxime therapy (Obi and 2-PAM) resulted in improved seizure control, increased cholinesterase reactivation peripherally and centrally and improved behavioral signs (Racine score). This study provides evidence that combination of oximes is effective, does not result in adverse events and that the pharmacokinetics of each oxime are not affected when administered in combination. Subject OximeHI-6PralidoximeObidoximeSarinPharmacokineticsEfficacyCombined therapy To reference this document use: http://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:e6749a97-55e5-489a-8e81-d5ebf36118f6 DOI https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2020.01.013 TNO identifier 876043 Source Toxicology Letters, 324 (324), 86-94 Document type article Files To receive the publication files, please send an e-mail request to TNO Library.