Print Email Facebook Twitter Virtual reality negotiation training increases negotiation knowledge and skill Title Virtual reality negotiation training increases negotiation knowledge and skill Author Broekens, J. Harbers, M. Brinkman, W. Jonker, C. van den Bosch, K. Meyer, J.J.C. Contributor Nakano, Y. (editor) Publication year 2012 Abstract In this paper we experimentally investigate learning effects of a rigourously set up virtual reality (VR) negotiation training. We discuss the design of the system in detail. Further, we present results of an experiment (between subject; three experimental conditions: control, training once, repeated training; n=42) investigating learning effects of VR training with three different effect measures. We measure in-game (non-transferred) negotiation outcome operationalized as the utility of the final bid proposed by the subject. We measure in-game (non-transferred) conversation skill operationalized as the number of times participants select responses that open the conversation towards finding underlying concerns minus the number of times a subject selects responses directing the conversation towards fixing issues prematurely. Third, we measure negotiation knowledge operationalized as a rating expressing the subjects' reflection quality upon filmed negotiation scenes (knowledge transfer). In addition to main effects, we analyze the effect of reflection on the subjects in-game learning. Our results show that VR training significantly increases negotiation knowledge. Further, our results show that both VR training as well as reflection increases conversation skill. Finally we found a marginally significant effect of training on in-game negotiation outcome. Overall our results show that VR training alone can be sufficient to increase negotiation knowledge and skills. However, as neither training nor reflection showed a significant effect on outcome, we postulate that other types of instruction (e.g., instruction and structured feedback) is needed for trainees to use the information gained during the joint exploration phase of a negotiation for the construction of a bid. Our results are particularly important given the sparse availability of experimental studies that show learning effects of VR negotiation training, and gives additional support to those studies that do report positive effects such as the evaluations of the BiLAT system. Subject HumanTPI - Training & Performance InnovationsBSS - Behavioural and Societal SciencesTrainingInformation SocietyConversation skillsExperimental conditionsExperimental studiesExploration phaseLearning approachLearning effectsNegotiation outcomesSubject experimentEngineering controlled termsIntelligent virtual agentsEngineering main headingPersonnel training To reference this document use: http://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:df1f5aa9-0167-4d07-9e0e-4ab3d5d61760 TNO identifier 461895 Publisher Springer, Berlin ; Heidelberg Source Proceedings of the Inteligent Virtual Agents (IVA) Held at: Santa Cruz, CA, 218-230 Series LNAI Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) Document type conference paper Files To receive the publication files, please send an e-mail request to TNO Library.