Oral-to-inhalation route extrapolation in occupational health risk assessment: A critical assessment
de Heer, C.
TNO Voeding Centraal Instituut voor Voedingsonderzoek TNO
Due to a lack of route-specific toxicity data, the health risks resulting from occupational exposure are frequently assessed by route-to-route (RtR) extrapolation based on oral toxicity data. Insight into the conditions for and the uncertainties connected with the application of RtR extrapolation has not been clearly described in a systematic manner. In our opinion, for a reliable occupational health risk assessment, it is necessary to have insight into the accuracy of the routinely applied RtR extrapolation and, if possible, to give a (semi-)quantitative estimate of the possible error introduced. Therefore, experimentally established no-observed-adverse-effect-levels for inhalation studies were compared to no-adverse-effect-levels predicted from oral toxicity studies by RtR extrapolation. From our database analysis it can be concluded that the widely used RtR extrapolation methodology based on correction for differences in (estimates of) absorption is not generally reliable and certainly not valid for substances inducing local effects. More experimental data are required (from unpublished data or new experiments) to get insight into the reliability of RtR extrapolation and the possibility to derive an assessment factor to account for the uncertainties. Moreover, validated screening methods to predict/exclude the occurrence of local effects after repeated exposure are warranted. Especially, in cases where chemical exposure by inhalation or skin contact cannot be excluded route-specific toxicity studies should be considered to prevent from inadequate estimates of human health risks. © 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
To reference this document use:
Food and Chemical Risk Analysis
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Predictive Value of Tests
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 39 (1), 5-11