Print Email Facebook Twitter The effects of food viscosity on bite size, bite effort and food intake Title The effects of food viscosity on bite size, bite effort and food intake Author de Wijk, R.A. Zijlstra, N. Mars, M. de Graaf, C. Prinz, J.F. TNO Kwaliteit van Leven Publication year 2008 Abstract Two studies investigated the effect of a food's viscosity on bite size, bite effort and food intake using a standardized protocol in which subjects sipped through a straw every 20 s for a period of 15 min from one of two products, a chocolate-flavored dairy drink and a chocolate-flavored dairy semi-solid, matched for energy density. In the first study, subjects consumed 47% more from the liquid than from the semi-solid to reach the same degree of satiation, with larger bite sizes for the liquid throughout the 15 minute period (8.7 ± 0.45 g) compared to the semi-solid (5.8 ± 0.3 g, p < 0.01). In the second study bite effort was eliminated by using a peristaltic pump to present the products every 20 s. Oral processing time before swallowing was set at 5 s (both products) or 8 s (semi-solid). With the elimination of bite effort and a standardized oral processing time, subjects consumed as much from the semi-solid as from the liquid to reach the same degree of satiation. Bite size for liquids started relatively small and grew gradually over successive bites, whereas the bite size for the semi-solid food started relatively large and became gradually smaller. The latter effect was even more pronounced when the oral processing time was increased from 5 to 8 s. In conclusion, semi-solids resulted in smaller bite sizes and lower intake than liquids, but these differences disappeared when differences in bite effort were eliminated. © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Subject NutritionBite effortBite sizeFood intakeLiquidsSatiationSemi-solidsSensoryViscosityAdultArticleCacaoDairy productEnergyFemaleFlavorFoodFood intakeFood qualityHumanHuman experimentLiquidMaleMasticationNormal humanPeristaltic pumpPriority journalSatietySwallowingViscosityAdultAnalysis of VarianceBite ForceCross-Over StudiesEatingFemaleFoodHumansHungerMaleSatiety ResponseSensationSingle-Blind MethodSize PerceptionStatistics as TopicViscosityYoung Adult To reference this document use: http://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:d207a7be-5ff5-4842-9c64-772fabf2a1bf DOI https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2008.07.026 TNO identifier 241067 ISSN 0031-9384 Source Physiology and Behavior, 95 (3), 527-532 Document type article Files To receive the publication files, please send an e-mail request to TNO Library.