Print Email Facebook Twitter Dairy foods, calcium, and colorectal cancer: A pooled analysis of 10 cohort studies Title Dairy foods, calcium, and colorectal cancer: A pooled analysis of 10 cohort studies Author Cho, E. Smith-Warner, S.A. Spiegelman, D. Beeson, W.L. van den Brandt, P.A. Colditz, G.A. Folsom, A.R. Fraser, G.E. Freudenheim, J.L. Giovannucci, E. Goldbohm, R.A. Graham, S. Miller, A.B. Pietinen, P. Potter, J.D. Rohan, T.E. Terry, P. Toniolo, P. Virtanen, M.J. Willet, W.C. Wolk, A. Wu, K. Yaun, S.-S. Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A. Hunter, D.J. TNO Voeding Centraal Instituut voor Voedingsonderzoek TNO Publication year 2004 Abstract Background: Studies in animals have suggested that calcium may reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. However, results from epidemiologic studies of intake of calcium or dairy foods and colorectal cancer risk have been inconclusive. Methods: We pooled the primary data from 10 cohort studies in five countries that assessed usual dietary intake by using a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline. For most studies, follow-up was extended beyond that in the original publication. The studies included 534 536 individuals, among whom 4992 incident cases of colorectal cancer were diagnosed between 6 and 16 years of follow-up. Pooled multivariable relative risks for categories of milk intake and quintiles of calcium intake and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Milk intake was related to a reduced risk of colorectal cancer. Compared with the lowest category of intake (<70 g/day), relative risks of colorectal cancer for increasing categories (70-174, 175-249, and ≥250 g/day) of milk intake were 0.94 (95% CI = 0.86 to 1.02), 0.88 (95% CI = 0.81 to 0.96), and 0.85 (95% CI = 0.78 to 0.94), respectively (Ptrend <.001). Calcium intake was also inversely related to the risk of colorectal cancer. The relative risk for the highest versus the lowest quintile of intake was 0.86 (95% CI = 0.78 to 0.95; Ptrend = .02) for dietary calcium and 0.78 (95% CI = 0.69 to 0.88; Ptrend <.001) for total calcium (combining dietary and supplemental sources). These results were consistent across studies and sex. The inverse association for milk was limited to cancers of the distal colon (Ptrend <.001) and rectum (Ptrend = .02). Conclusion: Higher consumption of milk and calcium is associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer. © Oxford University Press 2004, all rights reserved. Subject HealthFood and Chemical Risk AnalysisCalciumVitamin DCalcium intakeCancer riskCheeseCohort analysisColorectal cancerControlled studyDairy productDietary intakeFemaleFood intakeHumanMajor clinical studyMaleMilkPriority journalQuestionnaireRisk assessmentStatistical analysisAdenomaAdultAgedAnimalClinical trialColorectal tumorEatingEuropeIncidenceMeta analysisMethodologyMiddle agedMultivariate analysisProportional hazards modelProspective studyRisk factorStatisticsUnited StatesAdenomaAdultAgedAnimalsCalcium, DietaryCohort StudiesColorectal NeoplasmsDairy ProductsEatingEuropeFemaleHumansIncidenceMaleMiddle AgedMilkMultivariate AnalysisProportional Hazards ModelsProspective StudiesQuestionnairesResearch DesignRisk AssessmentRisk FactorsUnited States To reference this document use: http://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:c8209315-713d-48ca-bc98-b413e575a1f5 TNO identifier 237902 ISSN 0027-8874 Source Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 96 (13), 1015-1022 Document type article Files To receive the publication files, please send an e-mail request to TNO Library.