Biocompatibility and intradiscal application of a thermoreversible celecoxib-loaded poly-N-isopropylacrylamide MgFe-layered double hydroxide hydrogel in a canine model
Introduction: Chronic low back pain due to intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is associated with increased levels of inflammatory mediators. Current medical treatment consists of oral anti-inflammatory drugs to alleviate pain. In this study, the efficacy and safety of a novel thermoreversible poly-N-isopropylacrylamide MgFe-layered double hydroxide (pNIPAAM MgFe-LDH) hydrogel was evaluated for intradiscal controlled delivery of the selective cyclooxygenase (COX) 2 inhibitor and anti-inflammatory drug celecoxib (CXB). Methods: Degradation, release behavior, and the ability of a CXB-loaded pNIPAAM MgFe-LDH hydrogel to suppress prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels in a controlled manner in the presence of a proinflammatory stimulus (TNF-aα) were evaluated in vitro. Biocompatibility was evaluated histologically after subcutaneous injection in mice. Safety of intradiscal application of the loaded and unloaded hydrogels was studied in a canine model of spontaneous mild IVD degeneration by histological, biomolecular, and biochemical evaluation. After the hydrogel was shown to be biocompatible and safe, an in vivo dose-response study was performed in order to determine safety and efficacy of the pNIPAAM MgFe-LDH hydrogel for intradiscal controlled delivery of CXB. Results: CXB release correlated to hydrogel degradation in vitro. Furthermore, controlled release from CXB-loaded hydrogels was demonstrated to suppress PGE2 levels in the presence of TNF-aα. The hydrogel was shown to exhibit a good biocompatibility upon subcutaneous injection in mice. Upon intradiscal injection in a canine model, the hydrogel exhibited excellent biocompatibility based on histological evaluation of the treated IVDs. Gene expression and biochemical analyses supported the finding that no substantial negative effects of the hydrogel were observed. Safety of application was further confirmed by the absence of clinical symptoms, IVD herniation or progression of degeneration. Controlled release of CXB resulted in a nonsignificant maximal inhibition (approximately 35 %) of PGE2 levels in the mildly degenerated canine IVDs. Conclusions: In conclusion, this study showed biocompatibility and safe intradiscal application of an MgFe LDH-pNIPAAM hydrogel. Controlled release of CXB resulted in only limited inhibition of PGE2 in this model with mild IVD degeneration, and further studies should concentrate on application of controlled release from this type of hydrogel in animal models with more severe IVD degeneration. cop. 2015 Willems et al.
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MAS - Materials Solutions
TS - Technical Sciences
Magnesium ferrite layered double hydroxide
Poly N isopropylacrylamide
Intervertebral disk degeneration
Intradiscal controlled delivery
BioMed Central Ltd.
Arthritis Research and Therapy, 17 (1)