Print Email Facebook Twitter Biological effects of propionic acid in humans; metabolism, potential applications and underlying mechanisms Title Biological effects of propionic acid in humans; metabolism, potential applications and underlying mechanisms Author Al-Lahham, S.H. Peppelenbosch, M.P. Roelofsen, H. Vonk, R.J. Venema, K. TNO Kwaliteit van Leven Publication year 2010 Abstract Undigested food is fermented in the colon by the microbiota and gives rise to various microbial metabolites. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), including acetic, propionic and butyric acid, are the principal metabolites produced. However, most of the literature focuses on butyrate and to a lesser extent on acetate; consequently, potential effects of propionic acid (PA) on physiology and pathology have long been underestimated. It has been demonstrated that PA lowers fatty acids content in liver and plasma, reduces food intake, exerts immunosuppressive actions and probably improves tissue insulin sensitivity. Thus increased production of PA by the microbiota might be considered beneficial in the context of prevention of obesity and diabetes type 2. The molecular mechanisms by which PA may exert this plethora of physiological effects are slowly being elucidated and include intestinal cyclooxygenase enzyme, the G-protein coupled receptors 41 and 43 and activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, in turn inhibiting the sentinel transcription factor NF-κB and thus increasing the threshold for inflammatory responses in general. Taken together, PA emerges as a major mediator in the link between nutrition, gut microbiota and physiology. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Subject BiologyBiomedical ResearchFood intakeG-protein coupled receptorInflammationMicrobiotaPrebiotic dietPropionic acid To reference this document use: http://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:c32feb5f-3f89-4af0-8337-09c41930474b TNO identifier 409221 ISSN 1388-1981 Source Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids, 1801 (11), 1175-1183 Document type article Files To receive the publication files, please send an e-mail request to TNO Library.