An integrative test strategy for cancer hazard identification
van der Laan, J.-W.
van Benthem, J.
Assessment of genotoxic and carcinogenic potential is considered one of the basic requirements when evaluating possible human health risks associated with exposure to chemicals. Test strategies currently in place focus primarily on identifying genotoxic potential due to the strong association between the accumulation of genetic damage and cancer. Using genotoxicity assays to predict carcinogenic potential has the significant drawback that risks from non-genotoxic carcinogens remain largely undetected unless carcinogenicity studies are performed. Furthermore, test systems already developed to reduce animal use are not easily accepted and implemented by either industries or regulators. This manuscript reviews the test methods for cancer hazard identification that have been adopted by the regulatory authorities, and discusses the most promising alternative methods that have been developed to date. Based on these findings, a generally applicable tiered test strategy is proposed that can be considered capable of detecting both genotoxic as well as non-genotoxic carcinogens and will improve understanding of the underlying mode of action. Finally, strengths and weaknesses of this new integrative test strategy for cancer hazard identification are presented. Chemicals / CAS Carcinogens; Mutagens.
To reference this document use:
in vitro study
in vivo study
malignant neoplastic disease
quantitative structure activity relation
RAPID - Risk Analysis for Products in Development
Critical Reviews in Toxicology, 46 (46), 615-639