Review on geophysical monitoring of CO2 injection at Ketzin, Germany
Geophysical monitoring activities were an important component of the CO2 injection program at the Ketzin site, Germany. Here we report on the seismic and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) measurements performed during the period of the site development and CO2 injection. Details on the site geology, the history of the CO2 injection operation, and petrophysical models relevant for the interpretation of the geophysical data are presented. The seismic measurements comprise 2D and 3D surface seismic surveys, vertical seismic profilings, and crosshole measurements. Apart from the measurements, results from advanced processing methods, such as impedance inversion and full-waveform inversion are also presented. In addition, results from crosshole ERT and surface-downhole ERT are presented. If operational efforts are taken into consideration we conclude that a combination of several geophysical methods is preferable given the demands of a spatiotemporally comprehensive monitoring program. We base this conclusion on that the different imaging characteristics and petrophysical sensitivities of different methods can complement each other. An important finding is, based on signal quality and reduced operational costs, that the use of permanent installations is promising. Generally, specific monitoring layouts will depend on site-specific characteristics, such as reservoir depth, availability of wells, petrophysical characteristics, and accessibility of surface locations. Given the comprehensive range of methods applied, the reported results are not only relevant to the operation of CO2 storage sites, but are also of interest to other monitoring projects dealing with fluid injection or production. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.
To reference this document use:
SGE - Sustainable Geo Energy
ELSS - Earth, Life and Social Sciences
Geological Survey Netherlands
Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 139, 112-136