Print Email Facebook Twitter Methodological approach for the assessment of acute inhalation toxicity of smoke ammunitions by in silico, in vitro and in vivo modelling Title Methodological approach for the assessment of acute inhalation toxicity of smoke ammunitions by in silico, in vitro and in vivo modelling Author Pradines, E. Glacial, F. Medus, D. Stiee, E. Fedou, F. van Hulst, M. de Klerk, W.P.C. Publication year 2015 Abstract Assessing the toxicity of military pyrotechnic products is a growing challenge in the current context of Human and Environment protection. The Allied Ordnance Publication (AOP) 45 and the Standard NATO Agreement (STANAG) 4588 “Guidelines for toxicity testing of smokes, obscurants and pyrotechnics mixtures” proposed a practical framework to assess the toxicity of obscurant smoke compositions in relation with human health hazard and environmental impact. However, the latter document was not ratified and therefore withdrawn as it was impractical to implement. The PROTOCOL study, carried out by LACROIX and TNO and sponsored by the Direction Générale de l’Armement (DGA), allowed to pave the way for a new methodological approach for assessing the acute inhalation toxicity of obscurant and decoy smoke compositions. The aim was to establish to which extent in silico predictions and/or in vitro toxicity experiments can replace animal testing. On the basis of experimental results, it appeared that at the present time the in silico and in vitro approaches cannot replace totally in vivo toxicity tests on animals. Nevertheless, a methodological procedure was proposed allowing the reduction of animal use. Subject Observation, Weapon & Protection SystemsEM - Energetic MaterialsTS - Technical SciencesExplosivesInhalationToxicitySmoke ammunitionModels To reference this document use: http://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:bd7a2003-b870-4b6a-b49f-5d12220cf86f TNO identifier 525670 Source 11th International GTPS Seminar EUROPYRO 2015 + 41st International Pyrotechnics Seminar, Centre de Congrès Pierre Baudis, Toulouse, France, 4-7 May 2015, 291-305 Document type conference paper Files To receive the publication files, please send an e-mail request to TNO Library.