In order to promote individuals’ participation in society and to reduce individuals’ dependence on allowances, governments have developed and implemented policies containing elements of income support and reintegration as well as strategies for the prevention of disease and disability. An important element with regard to policies on disability is the evaluation of disability in a percentage or a category. These evaluations are the crossroads for people in the journey from work through sickness to disability or reintegration. Changes in policies on disability take place against a background of Europeanisation of social policies and of a growing contribution from private insurers in social security provision. Benchmarking of practices is an important topic in these changes. This study places similarities and differences in the practices of disability evaluation in a general public scheme in 15 countries (Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, the Russian Federation, Slovenia, Spain, the UK and the USA) with respect to the organisation of the evaluation process and quality control.