Print Email Facebook Twitter Effects of a passive back exoskeleton on the mechanical loading of the low-back during symmetric lifting Title Effects of a passive back exoskeleton on the mechanical loading of the low-back during symmetric lifting Author Kermavnar, T. de Vries, A.W. de Looze, M.P. O'Sullivan, L.W. Publication year 2021 Abstract This study is an updated systematic review of papers published in the last 5 years on industrial back-support exoskeletons. The research questions were aimed at addressing the recent findings regarding objective (e.g. body loading, user performance) and subjective evaluations (e.g. user satisfaction), potential side effects, and methodological aspects of usability testing. Thirteen studies of active and twenty of passive exoskeletons were identified. The exoskeletons were tested during lifting and bending tasks, predominantly in laboratory settings and among healthy young men. In general, decreases in participants’ back-muscle activity, peak L5/S1 moments and spinal compression forces were reported. User endurance during lifting and static bending improved, but performance declined during tasks that required increased agility. The overall user satisfaction was moderate. Some side effects were observed, including increased abdominal/lower-limb muscle activity and changes in joint angles. A need was identified for further field studies, involving industrial workers, and reflecting actual work situations. Practitioner summary: Due to increased research activity in the field, a systematic review was performed of recent studies on industrial back-support exoskeletons, addressing objective and subjective evaluations, side effects, and methodological aspects of usability testing. The results indicate the efficiency of exoskeletons in back-load reduction and a need for further studies in real work situations. Abbrevaitions: BB: biceps brachii; BF: biceps femoris; CoM: centre of mass; DA: deltoideus anterior; EMG: electromyography; ES: erector spinae; ES-C: erector spinae-cervical; ESI: erector spinae iliocostalis; ESI-L: erector spinae iliocostalis-lumborum; ESL: erector spinae longissimus; ES-L: erector spinae-lumbar; ESL-L: erector spinae longissimus-lumborum; ESL-T: erector spinae longissimus-thoracis; ES-T: erector spinae-thoracic; GM: glutaeus maximus; LBP: low back pain; LD: latissimus dorsi; LPD: local perceived discomfort scale; LPP: local perceived pressure scale; MS: multifidus spinae; MSD: musculoskeletal disorder; M-SFS: modified spinal function sort; NMV: no mean value provided; OA: obliquus abdominis (internus and externus); OEA: obliquus externus abdominis; OIA : obliquus internus abdominis; RA: rectus abdominis; RF: rectus femoris; RoM: range of motion; SUS: system usability scale; T: trapezius (pars Ascendens and Descendens); TA: trapezius pars ascendens; TC: mid-cervical trapezius; TD: trapezius pars descendens; VAS: visual analog scale; VL: vastus lateralis; VM: vastus medialis. © 2021 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. Subject Industrial ergonomicsEquipment designUser testingManual handlingMusculoskeletal disordersWork and EmploymentHealthy LivingLifeSP - Sustainable Productivity and EmployabilityELSS - Earth, Life and Social Sciences To reference this document use: http://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:af021955-ab1e-4c7e-a505-0b13c4efeff8 DOI https://doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2020.1870162 TNO identifier 955821 Source Ergonomics, Epub 16 March Document type article Files To receive the publication files, please send an e-mail request to TNO Library.