Cell to Module losses of an MWT module
Energieonderzoek Centrum Nederland
The efficiency of photovoltaic modules is for a large part determined by the solar cell efficiency, but the electrical losses from current transport between the cells and to the module contacts, and optical losses also play an important role. In order to investigate the losses in the module the Cell to Module (CtM) ratio is often used. It is determined by the ratio in performance between the module and the cell and gives an indication of the electrical and optical losses in the module. In principle this seems a straightforward approach. However, a good CtM measurement is not as trivial as it seems. Many factors play a role. Not only the way the measurement is done, but also which parameters are used for the cell in the comparison. After all, a module consists of many cells that are all slightly different. The various aspects in measurement and their influence on the CtM ratio will be discussed and suggestions for a correct measurement protocol to determine absolute CtM ratios will be given.
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