Print Email Facebook Twitter 4-Nonylphenol and bisphenol A in Swedish food and exposure in Swedish nursing women Title 4-Nonylphenol and bisphenol A in Swedish food and exposure in Swedish nursing women Author Gyllenhammar, I. Glynn, A. Darnerud, P.O. Lignell, S. van Delft, R. Aune, M. Publication year 2012 Abstract 4-Nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) are phenolic substances used in high volumes by the industry. Studies on cells and in experimental animals have shown that both these compounds can be classified as estrogenic hormone disrupters. Information about the exposure of humans to NP and BPA is still scarce, especially regarding levels in human blood. The first aim of this study was to investigate possible sources of NP and BPA exposure from food, by analyzing the levels of NP and BPA from a Swedish food market basket, based on the Swedish per capita food consumption. A second aim was to investigate blood serum levels of NP and BPA, as well as NP-ethoxylates, among young women in Sweden (n = 100). Moreover, associations between food consumption and blood NP and BPA levels were studied. In food, NP was to some extent found at levels above limit of quantification (LOQ 20. ng/g fresh weight) in fruits, cereal products, vegetables, and potatoes. BPA levels above LOQ (2. ng/g fresh weight) were found in fish, meats, potatoes, and dairy products. The estimated mean intakes per capita were (medium bound) 27 μg NP/day and 3.9 μg BPA/day, showing that food is a source of BPA and NP in the general Swedish population. In blood serum, free NP above limit of detection (LOD 0.5. ng/g) was detected in 46% of the study participants while detectable levels of total NP (LOD 0.8. ng/g) were observed in 43%. The corresponding percentages for BPA were 25% and 22%, respectively. The results indicate that there is a continuous source of exposure to NP and BPA that is high enough for free NP and BPA to be detected in some consumers. Among the participants with quantifiable levels of free and total NP (n = 38), 85% (median, range: 38-112%) of the NP was present as free NP. For BPA 76% (49-109%) was detected as free BPA (n = 15). All women had levels of ethoxylates of NP below LOD (0.1-0.7. ng/g). A significantly higher total consumption of fruits and vegetables was reported in questionnaires by participants with NP levels at or above LOD than among women with levels below LOD. This result is supporting the market basket results of relatively high NP levels in these types of food. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Subject Earth & EnvironmentAEC - Applied Environmental ChemistryEELS - Earth, Environmental and Life SciencesSustainable Chemical IndustryChemistry EnvironmentIndustrial Innovation4-Nonylphenol (NP)Bisphenol A (BPA)ExposureIntakeSerum levels To reference this document use: http://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:a2077a29-3946-4cfd-aea4-614587402909 TNO identifier 460285 ISSN 0160-4120 Source Environment International, 43 (1), 21-28 Document type article Files To receive the publication files, please send an e-mail request to TNO Library.