To investigate the possibilities for application of low-cost simulators within military training courses, the research project called elstar (European Low-cost Simulation Technology for the Armed forces) is carried out under contract of the Ministries of Defence of the five participating countries of Research Technology Project (RTP) 11.8, viz. Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, and The Netherlands. In the first workpackage (Analysis of military training), four training areas wer for further research, i.e.: driver training, UAV crew training, infrared and image intensifier operation training, and mission management training. This selection was based on expert-scores on the elstar taxonomy, the results of global task-, training-, and cost-utility analysis, and expert judgements on the generic value and complementarity of the knowledge that would be acquired. One of the basic premises of the elstar approach for developing low-cost training systems is to identify and select those critical task elements that can be simulated at low cost with high fidelity and training value. Therefore, in workpackage 3 (Simulator requirements) of the elstar project, an elaborate investigation of the task- and training requirements and -investments of the selected training areas, must render more detailed specifications of the selected training systems. For that purpose, the information collected in workpackage 3, is combined with the results from workpackage 2 (Analysis of low-cost technology) including cost-performance ratios. The present report describes the task analysis that is required to obtain specifications of low-cost trainers for wheeled vehicle driving. The driving task is analysed into 17 so-called 'elementary driving tasks' (EDTs). Each EDT includes a general description of the task and of the circumstances in which the EDT is executed. In addition, the relevant inputs (objects, object-positions and -distances) and outputs (required behaviour) are specified. Furthermore, the rules to which drivers must adhere, the perceptual-motor, cognitive, and procedural operations that are involved are specified. Finally, each EDT description includes an overview of the critical environmental- and task-variables. The present task analysis of the driving task has some unique characteristics relative to other analyses. First, the EDTs have minimal overlap and do not contain much redundancy and repetition (as seen in most other analyses of complex tasks). Astasks). As far as we know, this is the first analysis of car driving that combines a high degree of completeness with a limited volume. Second, the EDTs are defined such that they are relatively independent of each other. This relative independency allows the construction of (complex) higher-order subtasks just by combining EDTs. By relating EDTs with technological- and training investments, it becomes possible to easily explore costs and savings of various simulator configurations. This will be done in the next activities of workpackage 3. Three subsequent TNO reports (will then) describe the minimal functional requirements (costs) per EDT, the relationship between EDTs at one hand and training needs and -investments (savings) at the other, and the development of one or several low-cost simulator concepts for driver training.
De rijtaak wordt geanalyeerd in 17 onafhankelijke elementaire deeltaken. Dor deze te koppelen aan simulatoreisen en trainingskosten kan een optimale configuratie van een low-cost simulator worden samengesteld.