Towards a climate-dependent paradigm of ammonia emission and deposition
van Damme, M.
de Vries, W.
Existing descriptions of bi-directional ammonia (NH3) land-atmosphere exchange incorporate temperature and moisture controls, and are beginning to be used in regional chemical transport models. However, such models have typically applied simpler emission factors to upscale the main NH3 emission terms. While this approach has successfully simulated the main spatial patterns on local to global scales, it fails to address the environment- and climate- dependence of emissions. To handle these issues, we outline the basis for a new modelling paradigm where both NH3 emissions and deposition are calculated online according to diurnal, seasonal and spatial differences in meteorology. We show how measurements reveal a strong, but complex pattern of climatic dependence, which is increasingly being characterized using ground-based NH3 monitoring and satellite observations, while advances in process-based modelling are illustrated for agricultural and natural sources, including a global application for seabird colonies. A future architecture for NH3 emission-deposition modelling is proposed that integrates the spatio-temporal interactions, and provides the necessary © 2013 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Earth & Environment
To reference this document use:
CAS - Climate, Air and Sustainability
EELS - Earth, Environmental and Life Sciences
Climate Emission Environment
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 368 (1621)