Evaluation of the effect of the use of vitamin supplements on vitamin A intake among (potentially) pregnant women in relation to the consumption of liver and liver products
van den Berg, H.
Centraal Instituut voor Voedingsonderzoek TNO
Objective: To assess the distribution of dietary vitamin A intake among Dutch women aged 16-50 and among pregnant women, and to evaluate the effect of the use of a vitamin A (1200 RE) containing multivitamin supplement in terms of nutritional and teratogenic risk. Study design: Data from the 2nd Dutch national food consumption survey (1992) were used for calculation of the vitamin A intake among 1725 16-50 year old women and 58 pregnant women. Calculations were performed with and without simulation of the use of a supplement containing 1200 RE vitamin A. Results: Average vitamin A intake, based on a two-day dietary record method, compared quite well with recommended intake levels: 850 RE for the 16-50 year old non-pregnant (NP) women (RDA: 800 RE), and 990 RE for the pregnant (P) women (RDA: 1000 RE), respectively. The use of liver on one of the days under survey resulted in high intakes: 60% of the women in this subgroup exceeded the 'safe upper intake limit' of 3000 RE, while in 23% of the cases intakes were > 7500 RE. Those not consuming liver or liver products on the days under survey had relatively low average intakes [NP (n = 1472): 540 RE; P (n = 46): 720 RE]; about 70% of the non-liver users had intakes below the RDA. Including the daily use of a vitamin A containing multivitamin supplement with 1200 RE resulted in intakes > RDA, while only in 2% (NP), respectively 3% (P) of the cases the 'total' intake exceeded the 3000 RE level, but remained in all cases below 7500 RE/day serving per day. Conclusion: The use of a vitamin A containing (maximum 1200 RE) multivitamin supplement can contribute to a controlled and adequate vitamin A intake and be considered as safe for pregnant women or women who wish to become pregnant, if the consumption of liver is completely avoided and the consumption of liver products is limited to maximum one.
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major clinical study
European Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 66 (1), 17-21