Erosive arthritis in a patient with pycnodysostosis: An experiment of nature
TNO Kwaliteit van Leven
Objective. The excellent poster painter Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec is the most famous patient with cathepsin K-deficient pycnodysostosis. Cathepsin K is believed to play a major role in osteoclast-driven bone resorption. In this study we explored the role of cathepsin K in bone resorption in a patient with a cathepsin K mutation causing pycnodysostosis in whom psoriatic arthritis also developed. We hypothesized that the patient would develop only inflammatory synovitis but would not develop bone erosions or other osteolytic changes. Methods. Monocytes from the patient with pycnodysostosis and normal control monocytes were isolated and stimulated to fuse and form multinuclear osteoclast-like cells, which were identified by evaluating messenger RNA expression of osteoclast markers. The ability to resorb bone was assessed by determining the extent of pit formation and levels of collagen degradation products generated by cathepsin K (C-terminal crosslinking telopeptide of type I collagen [CTX]) and matrix metalloproteinases (pyridinoline crosslinked C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen). These experiments were also done in normal control cells after incubation with the cathepsin K inhibitor E64 during bone resorption. Results. In contrast to our a priori hypothesis, the patient developed a mutilating disease with extensive bony erosions associated with lysis of some of the distal phalanges of her hands and feet. After stimulation of monocytes from this patient, the cells formed multinuclear tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive and calcitonin receptor-positive multikaryons, which, however, totally lacked cathepsin K. These multinuclear cells were able to resorb bone but, in contrast to normal control osteoclasts, did not produce CTX. The resorption pattern was abnormal in that, unlike normal control osteoclasts, both osteoclasts from the patient and E64-inhibited osteoclasts did not leave extensive osteoclast trails, but were relatively sessile. Conclusion. In this "experiment of nature" we observed that cathepsin K is not necessary for bone degradation. These findings may be pertinent to our understanding of the functions of cathepsin K inhibitors, which are currently being developed as drugs to treat metabolic bone diseases. © 2008, American College of Rheumatology.
To reference this document use:
acid phosphatase tartrate resistant isoenzyme
carboxy terminal telopeptide
n [n (3 carboxyoxirane 2 carbonyl)leucyl]agmatine
Arthritis and Rheumatism, 58 (11), 3394-3401