Active TGF-β1 correlates with myofibroblasts and malignancy in the colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence
van der Reijden, J.J.
van der Zon, J.M.
TNO Kwaliteit van Leven
Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), a cytokine involved in various stages of cancer, is produced as a latent complex and requires processing to become active. We have determined total and active TGF-β1 levels in homogenates of colorectal neoplasia. In contrast to total TGF-β levels, showing a stepwise increase in the mucosa-adenoma-carcinoma sequence, active TGF-β1 levels are increased only in carcinomas but not in premalignant adenomas. Furthermore, solely active TGF-β1 levels are associated with the stage of the carcinomas and worse patient prognosis. Active TGF-β1 levels correlated significantly with plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) and several matrix-remodeling proteinases. Interestingly, SMA levels are also significantly increased in colorectal carcinomas but not in adenomas, suggesting that despite the enhanced total TGF-β1 levels, myofibroblast accumulation is not (yet) occurring in these premalignant neoplasias. The correlation between active TGF-β1 and SMA expression in tumors indicates that tumor-promoting myofibroblasts might arise as a result of increased TGF-β1 activation. These data underline the significance of the interaction between malignant cells and (myo)-fibroblasts in the tumor microenvironment, modulating the biologic behavior of colorectal cancer. © 2009 Japanese Cancer Association.
To reference this document use:
plasminogen activator inhibitor 1
SMAD2 protein, human
transforming growth factor beta1
cell strain HT29
enzyme linked immunosorbent assay
sensitivity and specificity
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1
Reproducibility of Results
Sensitivity and Specificity
Transforming Growth Factor beta1
Tumor Markers, Biological
Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator
Cancer Science, 100 (4), 663-670