The effects of smoke hand grenades on human lung cells and bacteria for toxicity screening purposes
van Hulst, M.
de Klerk, W.P.C.
Exposure to signaling smoke is almost impossible to avoid, and may have adverse health effects. Hand grenades with signaling smoke are used during training and/or military operations. To obtain the most realistic results when estimating the toxicity of the smoke, not only the smoke–forming composition is ignited, but the whole hand grenade is used as it is used during military operations. The experiments are conducted by igniting colored smoke hand grenades, measuring the toxic effect of the formed smoke on the lung cells using the CULTEX® system, collecting samples for determining the mutagenic character by the Ames-test and analyzing the particle size (distribution) of the smoke particles and comparing the results. The toxic effect of the smoke for humans is not only dependent on the nature of the components present in the smoke, but also on the size of the formed particles and the exposure time. The migration of the particle into the lungs is dependent on the size of the particle. The smaller the particle the deeper it is able to enter into the lungs. Various techniques are used to determine the particle size and particle size distributions.
Fluid Mechanics Chemistry & Energetics Life
To reference this document use:
EM - Energetic Materials CBRN - CBRN Protection
TS - Technical Sciences EELS - Earth, Environmental and Life Sciences
Defence, Safety and Security
Colored smoke hand grenades
39th International Pyrotechnic Seminar, Valencia, Spain, 27-31 May 2013