Print Email Facebook Twitter Punishment and reward in parental discipline for children aged 5 to 6 years: Prevalence and groups at risk Title Punishment and reward in parental discipline for children aged 5 to 6 years: Prevalence and groups at risk Author Theunissen, M.H.C. Vogels, A.G.C. Reijneveld, S.A. Publication year 2015 Abstract OBJECTIVE: In this study we examined the use and predictors of different discipline practices by parents of children aged 5 to 6 years. METHODS: We obtained cross-sectional data for a nationally representative Dutch sample of children aged 5 to 6 years within the setting of routine well-child visits provided to the entire population. A total of 1630 children participated (response rate, 84%). Before the visit, parents completed a questionnaire with questions about their approach to discipline (punishment and rewards). Chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations between discipline practices and child, parent, and family factors. RESULTS: Parental punishment prevalence was 21.9% for spanking and 80.3% for other punishment practices, such as time-outs. The prevalence of rewards as a discipline strategy was 32.2% for granting privileges and 86.3% for cuddling/complimenting. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that spanking was more likely in families in which the mothers have low and medium levels of education and in families of non-Dutch ethnicity. Other punishment practices (eg, time-outs, verbal reprimands, and holding) were more likely in families of Dutch ethnicity. Granting privileges was more likely in families of non-Dutch ethnicity, who lived in large cities, whose income was below the poverty level, in unemployed families, and in small families. Cuddling and complimenting were more likely in families with a high maternal educational level, in families of Dutch ethnicity, and in small families. CONCLUSIONS: These findings show the importance of considering social and economic factors when identifying and supporting parents with parenting/rearing challenges. Copyright © 2015 by Academic Pediatric Association. Subject LifeCH - Child HealthELSS - Earth, Life and Social SciencesHealthy for LifeHealthHealthy LivingChildrenDisciplineParenting practices To reference this document use: http://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:62dec039-8f2b-4e95-9d32-0830e0682260 TNO identifier 524749 ISSN 1876-2859 Source Academic Pediatrics, 15 (1), 96-102 Document type article Files To receive the publication files, please send an e-mail request to TNO Library.