Print Email Facebook Twitter The FEMA GRAS assessment of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes and related substances used as flavor ingredients Title The FEMA GRAS assessment of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes and related substances used as flavor ingredients Author Adams, T.B. Gavin, C.L. Taylor, S.V. Waddell, W.J. Cohen, S.M. Feron, V.J. Goodman, J. Rietjens, I.M.C.M. Marnett, L.J. Portoghese, P.S. Smith, R.L. TNO Kwaliteit van Leven KvL Publication year 2008 Abstract This publication is the 12th in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavoring substances under conditions of intended use. Since then, the number of flavoring substances has grown to more than 2200 chemically-defined substances. Elements that are fundamental to the safety evaluation of flavor ingredients include exposure, structural analogy, metabolism, toxicodynamics and toxicology. Scientific data relevant to the safety evaluation for the use of aliphatic, linear α,β-unsaturated aldehydes and structurally related substances as flavoring ingredients are evaluated. The group of substances was reaffirmed as GRAS (GRASr) based, in part, on their self-limiting properties as flavoring substances in food; their low level of flavor use; the rapid absorption and metabolism of low in vivo concentrations by well-recognized biochemical pathways; adequate metabolic detoxication at much higher levels of exposure in humans and animals; the wide margins of safety between the conservative estimates of intake and the no-observed-adverse effect levels determined from subchronic and chronic studies. While some of the compounds described here have exhibited positive in vitro genotoxicity results, evidence of in vivo genotoxicity and carcinogenicity occurs only under conditions in which animals are repeatedly and directly exposed to high irritating concentrations of the aldehyde. These conditions are not relevant to humans who consume α,β-unsaturated aldehydes as flavor ingredients at low concentrations distributed in a food or beverage matrix. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Chemicals / CAS: 2 hexenal, 505-57-7; sorbic acid, 110-44-1, 22500-92-1; Aldehydes; Carcinogens; Flavoring Agents; Mutagens Subject Nutritionα,β-Unsaturated aldehydesFEMA GRASFlavor ingredientsGenotoxicity2 hexenalaldehydeflavoring agentsorbic acidcarcinogenicitychemical analysisflavorgenotoxicityhydrolysisreproductive toxicityreviewsafetyAldehydesAnimalsCarcinogensFlavoring AgentsFood AnalysisHumansMutagensReproductionAnimalia To reference this document use: http://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:5f2f95f5-d7eb-40bd-8ff8-6151f93707a3 DOI https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2008.06.082 TNO identifier 240971 ISSN 0278-6915 Source Food and Chemical Toxicology, 46 (9), 2935-2967 Document type article Files To receive the publication files, please send an e-mail request to TNO Library.